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ILLINOIS 
f NATURAL HISTORY — ^\ 

SURVEY 



Barge Effects on Channel Catfish 

Final Report, F-74-R 



Center for Aquatic Ecology 



Brian L. Todd, Frank S. Dillon, and Richard E. Sparks 



July 1989 

^ Aquatic Ecology Technical Report 89/5 ^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/bargeeffectsonchOOtodd 



Barge Effects on Channel Catfish 

Federal Aid Project F-74-R 

Final Report 



by 
Brian L. Todd, Frank S. Dillon and Richard E. Sparks 



Dr. Richard E. Sparks 
Principal Investigator 



Brian L. Todd and Frank S. Dillon 
Project Coordinators 



Center for Aquatic Ecology 

Forbes Biological Station 

Illinois Natural History Survey 

River Research Laboratory 

Box 599 

Havana, IL 62644 



R. E. Sparks, Principal Investigator Uc^. L. Osborne, 




Head, Aquatic Ecology 
July 1989 



DISCLAIMER 

The findings, conclusions, and views expressed are those of the 
researchers and should not be considered as the official position of 
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service or the Illinois Department 
of Conservation. 



ii 



ABSTRACT 

We implanted radio transmitters in 38 channel catfish in 1987 and 
48 in 1988 to monitor the effect of commercial navigation on their 
behavior and to gather information about their habitat use and 
movements. High mortality (50%) after surgery was encountered in 1987 
but technique and timing were corrected in 1988 and mortality 
decreased to 10%. Transmitter expulsion rates were estimated to be 
37%. 

During the period when locks were closed in 1987, (14 July to 7 
September) habitat selection under two water level regimes was 
observed. During low flow, usage of main channel increased but was 
not a preferred habitat. During high flow usage of main channel 
declined. Temporary backwaters were used as soon as water levels made 
them accessible to the channel catfish. Side channel habitat was 
preferred prior to, and during lock closure. Following the resumption 
of tow traffic, as water temperatures decreased and water levels 
receded, usage of main channel and main channel borders increased. 

Side channel habitat was preferred in spring and summer. Main 
channel border was preferred in fall. Main channel was used more in 
fall and winter but was not used in the proportion it was available. 
Side channels and backwaters were preferred in a winter with 
fluctuating water levels. Use of backwater habitats declined in 1988 
when the low water levels made these areas unsuitable. 

Channel catfish generally avoided navigated areas (main channel) 
and selected side channel and main channel border habitats. There was 



no difference in selection of habitat between day and night. Depths 
between 3.4 and 6.6 ft were selected in greater proportion than they 
were available in the intensive study area in the summer. 

A portion of the radio-tagged population was sedentary with 45% 
of our radio-tagged fish exhibiting net movements <0.11 mi. The 
maximum movement recorded was downstream 27.4 mi. Movement peaks were 
in the summer of 1987 and in late spring/early summer in 1988 and were 
also associated with fluctuations in water levels. Diel movements 
peaked between 1600-2400 hours. Movement increased during the period 
of lock closure. 

Channel catfish exhibited movement averaging 80 ft in response to 
52% of the tow passages monitored. When a detectable movement was 
observed, the distance moved was positively related to the number of 
units in the tow. Channel catfish > 131 ft from the tow moved during 
tow passage more often than those < 131 ft, probably because the 
drawdown effect created by passing tows had more effect on the fish in 
shallow water. 

Average depths selected in spring and summer (7.25 and 6.5 ft 
respectively) were shallower than average depths selected in fall and 
winter (8.5 and 8.4 ft respectively). Bottom current velocities at 
fish locations differed between seasons but not between day and night. 
Highest velocities were selected in spring (0.59 ft/s) and lowest 
velocities in summer (0.39 ft/s). 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Title and Signature Page i 

Disclaimer ii 

Abstract i i i 

Table of Contents v 

List of Tables viii 

List of Figures ix 

Index to Federal Aid Jobs x 

Acknowl edgments xi 

Introduction 1 

Objectives 3 

Methods 4 

Approach 4 

Study Si te 7 

Choice of Test Organism 9 

Radio Tagging 11 

Physical -Chemical Measurements and Habitat Descriptions 13 

Intensive Monitoring 15 

Data Analysis 15 

Habitat Use vs. Availability 15 

Statistical Analysis of Habitat Use vs. Availability Data 17 

Velocity Utilization 19 

Movement 19 

Results 21 

Mortality and Transmitter Expulsion 21 

Modifications to Surgical Procedures 23 



Water Qual ity 24 

Habitat Use 26 

Habitat Use in Relation to Lock Closure 26 

Pre-Closure, 15 June 1987 to 13 July 1987 26 

During Closure, 14 July 1987 to 7 Sept. 1987 28 

Post-Closure, 8 Sept. 1987 to 18 Nov. 1987 28 

Seasonal Habitat Use 30 

Statistical Analysis of Habitat Use vs. Availability 33 

Movement 35 

Long-term Movement Patterns 35 

Seasonal Movement 37 

Diel Movement 41 

Movement in Relation to Lock Closure 41 

Pre-Closure, 15 June 1987 to 13 July 1987 41 

During Closure, 14 July 1987 to 7 Sept. 1987 41 

Post-Closure, 8 Sept. 1987 to 18 Nov. 1987 41 

Movement i n Response to Tow Passage 44 

In relation to lock closure 44 

Response to tow passage throughout the study 46 

Depth Selection 48 

Velocity Selection 52 

Discussion 54 

Recommendations 70 



Executi ve Summary 72 

Literature Cited 76 

Appendix 86 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Page 



1. Habitat availability and selection (L values) for eight 
radio- tagged channel catfish during summer 34 

2. Summary of of radio-tagged channel catfish movements in 

1987 and 1988 36 

3. Summary of seasonal movements of radio-tagged channel 

catfish in 1987 and 1988 40 

4. Frequency, distance and direction of channel catfish 
movements in relation to lock closure 43 

5. Radio-tagged channel catfish movement in relation to tow 
passage throughout the study 47 

6. Mean current velocities (ft/s) selected by radio-tagged 

adult channel catfish 53 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Page 

1. Map of the Illinois River system 5 

2. Projected tow traffic levels in relation to lock closure. . 6 

3. Map of study site 8 

4. Projected levels of commercial navigation on the lower 
Illinois River 10 

5. Map showing intensive study area of 1988 18 

6. Mean daily water temperatures of the Illinois River at 
Havana, IL 25 

7. Habitat selection by radio-tagged channel catfish in 
relation to lock closure 27 

8. Hydrograph of the Illinois River at Havana, IL 29 

9. Seasonal habitat selection by radio-tagged channel 

catfish in 1987 31 

10. Seasonal habitat selection by radio-tagged channel 

catfish in 1988 32 

11. Movements of radio-tagged channel catfish in 1987 38 

12. Movements of radio-tagged channel catfish in 1988 39 

13. Diel movements of radio-tagged channel catfish 42 

14. Commercial lockages at Illinois River locks at La Grange 

and Peoria, IL 45 

15. Cross section of the Illinois River at river mile 121.0. .. 49 

16. Cross section of the Illinois River at river mile 120.6. .. 50 

17. Depth selection by radio-tagged channel catfish 51 

18. Comparison of bottom profiles of the main channel and 

side channel 68 



IX 



Index to Federal Aid Jobs 



Page Number 
Job Number Job Title Methods Results 



1 Implantation of transmitters 11-13 21-24 

2 Short-term movements 15-20 44-48 

3 Daily movements 15-20 26-43 

4 Seasonal movements 19 26-40 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work has been funded by the United States Department of the 
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, under the Dingell -Johnson/Wallop- 
Breaux Sport Fishing Restoration Program, project F-74-R, in 
conjunction with the Illinois Department of Conservation. Illinois 
Department of Energy and Natural Resources granted funds to purchase 
the initial set of transmitters, a receiver, and an antenna. 

Dr. Richard E. Sparks wrote the original proposal, hired project 
staff and was the principal investigator for the project. Doug 
Blodgett contributed to the original project planning, assisted in 
writing the project proposal, assisted in field work and gave critical 
and valuable advice throughout the project. Vince Scott assisted with 
field work, maintenance and data entry from April 1988 to September 
1988. Eric Hopps assisted with field work, maintenance and data entry 
from September 1988 to February 1989. Scott Stuewe, Illinois 
Department of Conservation piloted the tracking airplane in the first 
year of the study. 

Dean Richardson, commercial fisherman, initially caught most of 
the channel catfish we radio tagged and he released many radio-tagged 
fish he captured in his routine fishing efforts. 

We would like to thank Paul Raibley, Phil Moy, Dave Douglas, Jack 
Grubaugh, Alan McLukie and Steve Stenzel , Illinois Natural History 
Survey, Havana for there help with field work. Millie Watson typed 
portions of this report. We are indebted to the following Illinois 
Department of Conservation employees: Dale Burkett, Steve Gonzales, 

xi 



for administrative support, Rudy Stinauer, Kenny Hills, Dale Bressler, 
Larry Munsch and Whitney Sarff of the Fisheries Field Headquarters in 
Havana for their guidance, use of facilities, and assistance. Rod 
Horner and Larry Durham, Jake Wolf Memorial Fish Hatchery for 
diagnostic work, and Dan Sallee and Elmer "Butch" Atwood, Streams 
Program for field assistance and valuable input throughout the study. 



INTRODUCTION 

The impacts of commercial navigation on the fishery resources of 
navigable rivers are largely unknown. The physical effects of tow 
passage have been documented (Sparks et al . 1980; Bhowmik et al . 
1981a; Bhowmik et al . 1981b; Lubinski et al . 1981; Smart et al . 1985; 
Killgore et al . 1987). These investigators found that propeller wash 
and waves from tows create extreme shear forces, increase levels of 
suspended sediment for 2 to 4 hours after passage, reverse currents 
and temporarily draw down water levels. Smart et al . (1985) reported 
suspended solids increased 3.4% to 15% above ambient following 
tow passage on the Upper Mississippi River, and remained above ambient 
for up to 2.5 hr. Tow passage causes levels of suspended sediments to 
be raised up to 10% above ambient levels even in side channels 
(Bhowmik et al . 1981b; Simons et al . 1988). However, Simons et al . 
(1987) report the amount of sediment resuspended by tows has "little 
or no effect on the natural life of backwater areas and side 
channels". Herricks et al . (1982) found an increase in the 
macroinvertebrate drift immediately following tow passage due to 
disturbance of the substrate. 

Previous research to document direct effects of tow passage on 
fishes has focused on the early life stages. Holland (1987) found 
that dewatering through the drawdown effect increased the mortality of 
walleye {Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and northern pike {Esox lucius) 
larvae. Shear forces cause mortality to freshwater drum [Aplodinotus 
grunniens) eggs (Holland 1986), paddlefish {Polyodon spathula) yolk- 

1 



sac larvae (Killgore et al . 1987) and to striped bass {Morone 
saxatilis) and white perch (W. americana) eggs and larvae (Morgan et 
al . 1976). The waves generated by tows also change the vertical and 
horizontal distribution of ichthyoplankton (Holland 1986). 

Resuspension of sediments contribute to the turbidity in the 
Illinois River. Buck (1956) reported that largemouth bass {Micropterus 
salmoides) in Oklahoma ponds and reservoirs failed to spawn at 
turbidities greater than 84 Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) - a level 
exceeded for 2 hours following passage of tows in the lower Illinois 
River (Sparks 1977). Spawning success of redear sunfish {Lepomis 
wicrolophus) and bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus) was severely 
restricted or completely restricted above 100 JTU (Buck 1956). Tow- 
induced turbidities greater than 100 JTU persisted for over an hour in 
the Lower Illinois River (Sparks 1977). 

Habitat degradation such as channelization, closing of side 
channels and dredging for channel maintenance has also had a negative 
impact on the fisheries of navigable rivers (Funk and Robinson 1974; 
Groen and Schmulbach 1978; Sparks et al . 1979; Karr et al . 1985; Hesse 
1987). Although the navigation dams have expanded the quiet-water 
habitat available for some species during periods of low flow, some of 
the dams have created obstacles to the migrations of some riverine 
species (e.g. American eel Anguilla rostrata, skipjack herring Alosa 
chrysochloris; Smith 1979). In addition, the expanded aquatic 
habitats are eventually degraded and lost through sedimentation. The 
reach of the Mississippi River impounded by the Keokuk Dam (Dam 19) 



will have changed from a pool to a relatively deep, narrow main 
channel bordered by mud flats and marshes by the year 2020 (Bhowmik et 
al . 1986). Sedimentation has already reduced the value of backwaters 
for fish and wildlife habitat in the Illinois River and these areas 
will lose half of their remaining volume to sedimentation in 24-230 
years (Bell rose et al . 1983). 

OBJECTIVES 
It is important to document the effects of existing levels of 
navigation on river fishes so that adverse impacts associated with 
navigation can be avoided or perhaps mitigated. Also, these mitigation 
costs, or unavoidable fishery losses should be factored into 
cost/benefit analyses of future plans for navigation expansion. This 
study was initiated in the spring of 1987 with these objectives: 1) 
document the effects of various levels tow of traffic on the movement 
and behavior of adult channel catfish {Ictalurus punctatus), 2) 
collect basic data on channel catfish movements and habitat use in a 
large river, and 3) recommend protective or mitigative techniques. If 
navigation adversely affects channel catfish populations or habitat, 
mitigation measures might include restoration of side channels which 
have silted in or have been filled with dredge spoil. Restoration of 
these areas may provide habitat where channel catfish could find 
protection from some of the direct effects of navigation. 



METHODS 

Approach 

Our approach was that of an opportunistic field experiment. The 
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) closed the navigation 
locks at LaGrange and Peoria, IL (Figure 1) for repairs from July 14 
to September 6, 1987, halting commercial navigation on a 78-mile 
stretch of the Illinois River. This allowed a unique opportunity to 
monitor movements and habitat use by channel catfish under several 
different levels of traffic. We predicted traffic levels between the 
dams, in La Grange Pool, would increase prior to the closure and then 
resume at very high levels after the locks reopened (Figure 2) as tow 
boat owners and shippers made up for lost time. We planned to document 
the impacts of increased traffic. We expected little or no traffic 
within the pool during lock closure because most traffic is inter-pool 
rather than intra-pool. Normal traffic levels were predicted for the 
summer of 1988. 

We set out to radio-tag adult channel catfish prior to the locks 
closing in 1987 in order to monitor the fish at high traffic levels, 
then with no traffic, and finally with high traffic levels as the 
locks reopened. We hoped to determine whether fish would occupy the 
main channel if there was no commercial traffic and document the 
response of the fish to the passage of the first tows when the locks 
reopened. Channel catfish radio-tagged in 1988 were to be the 
reference group subjected to normal levels of traffic. 




Lake 
Michigan 



Figure 1. Map of the Illinois River system. 

5 



Projected Tow Traffic Levels 



i 

o 

1 

1- 

C 

"co 

03 

CD 

^- 

O 

c 


i 




I 







Lock 
Closure 

Time 



Figure 2. 



Predicted tow traffic levels in relation to 
lock closure. 



study Site 

The Illinois River is a 8-9 order river that has a mean annual 
discharge of 21,106 ft^s at Havana, IL (USGS 1988). The River begins 
at the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers at Dresden, 
IL and flows 273 mi to join the Mississippi River at Grafton, IL. In 
1871 the flow of the Chicago River was reversed and diverted into the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal to carry untreated waste away from 
Chicago's source of drinking water (Lake Michigan) and into the Des 
Plaines and Illinois rivers. In 1900 the Chicago Sanitary and Ship 
Canal was opened and large volumes of water were diverted from Lake 
Michigan to help flush sewage into the Illinois River. The effects of 
these pollutants on the biota in earlier years has been well 
documented (e.g. Richardson 1921; Starrett 1971; Sparks 1977; Sparks 
1984). 

The study site on the Illinois River is in the vicinity of 
Havana, IL (Figure 3) within the reach closed to commercial 
navigation. This area supports a commercial catfish fishery and two 
annual sport fishing derbies. This area also contains varied habitat 
types (main channel, main channel borders, side channels, backwaters 
and tributaries) . 

In contrast to earlier years, the dissolved oxygen and 
contaminant levels in the main channel of the study reach of the river 
today generally meet the Illinois water quality standards for general 
use, including protection of fish and wildlife (USGS 1988). However, 
the side channels and backwaters in this reach have filled with 




Figure 3. Map of study site. 



sediment, which reduces the volume of habitat available to fish during 
low river stages characteristic of summer and early fall (Bellrose et 
al. 1983). The sediments are easily resuspended by wind- or boat- 
generated waves, hence submersed aquatic plants do not grow in the 
backwaters today probably because they cannot obtain a firm roothold 
in the loose sediment or sufficient light in the turbid water. 
Resuspended sediments also exert an oxygen demand on the water, so 
that waves often lower the dissolved oxygen concentration instead of 
aerating the water (Bellrose et al . 1977). The sediments also contain 
an unidentified toxic material which has drastically reduced the 
amount of animal food (mollusks and aquatic insects) available for 
bottom-feeding fish (Anderson et al . 1978; Sparks et al . 1981; Sparks 
and Sandusky 1983). 

The Illinois River and the associated waterways link the 
Mississippi River, the Chicago area, and the Great Lakes. In 1988 
over 30,000,000 tons of freight (e.g. grain, coal, petroleum) passed 
through the lock at La Grange, IL (USACOE 1989). Levels of commercial 
traffic are predicted to increase through the year 2040 (Figure 4) for 
both the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, with completion of the 
additional lock and replacement lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi 
River 20 miles above St. Louis, MO (Louis Berger and Associates 1981; 
Simons et al . 1981; USACOE 1988). 
Choice of Test Organism 

The channel catfish is an important species in Illinois to both 
the recreational angler and the commercial fisherman. Thirty-nine 
percent of Illinois stream anglers seek catfish and catfish make-up 



sz 



c 

CO 

w 

03 
Q_ 




(suoniiiAi) mBjejj p suoi 



Figure 4. 



J USACOE 1989 

" Louis Berger and Associates 1981 

^ Simons et al . 1981 

^ USACOE 1988 

Actual and projected levels of commercial navigation 
on the lower Illinois River. 



10 



over 25% of total harvest from streams (Illinois Department of 
Conservation 1989). However, the effects of commercial navigation on 
channel catfish are largely unknown. Potential impacts of navigation 
on channel catfish need to be documented so mitigation can be planned. 
The channel catfish was chosen as the study organism because of its 
popularity with recreational anglers, and results from the study of 
its behavior may be generalized to some extent across a guild of big 
river catfishes (e.g. flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris and blue 
catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) . Their tendency to use navigated areas 
(Hawkinson and Grunwald 1979; Stang and Nickum 1985) as well as off- 
channel areas may make them more vulnerable to the effects of 
navigation than fishes that are more frequently found in off-channel 
areas (e.g. crappies, Pomoxis sp., and bluegill; Sylvester and 
Broughton 1983). 
Tagging 

We radio tagged 38 channel catfish that were collected from main 
channel, main channel border and tributary habitats within the study 
area in 1987 and 48 from side channel, main channel, and main channel 
border habitats in 1988. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted 
into the abdominal cavity using procedures modified from Hart and 
Summerfelt (1975) and Bidgood (1980). The transmitters had external 
"whip" antennae for greater range. Two sizes of transmitters were 
used: one weighed 0.9 oz and had a life expectancy of 7 months and 
the other weighed 0.6 oz and had a life expectancy of 5 months. When 
using a 4-element YAGI receiving antenna, both types had a 



11 



broadcasting range of approximately 1,200 ft when the fish was in 
water 6 ft deep. 

Transmitter weight was limited to < 2% of body weight to avoid 
influencing fish behavior (e.g. Winter 1983). Limiting the 
transmitter-to-body-weight ratio also reduces the frequency of 
transintestinal expulsion -- a process where the intestine of a fish 
engulfs the transmitter and expels it through the anus. This 
phenomenon is particularly frequent in channel catfish (Marty and 
Summerfelt 1986, 1988). Studies indicate that the frequency of 
transintestinal expulsion in channel catfish can be reduced by keeping 
the transmitter weight < 1% of the body weight (Summerfelt and Mosier 
1984; Marty and Summerfelt 1986, 1988). We were forced to exceed the 
< 1% criterion due to transmitter availability and design constraints 
as well as availability of large fish. 

There have been several investigations showing that properly 
sized and placed transmitters do not have long-term effects on the 
behavior and swimming ability of telemetered fish when compared to 
control fish e.g. Gallepp and Magnuson (1972), McCleave and Stred 
(1975), Fried et al . (1976) and Crumpton (1982). Summerfelt and 
Mosier (1984) concluded that there was no difference in survival and 
growth of dummy-radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged channel catfish. 
Short-term effects have been documented, however. Hart and Summerfelt 
(1973) found flathead catfish moved more for 1.5 days following 
surgery. Conversely, McCall (1977) found channel catfish moved less 
the first day after surgery and suspected their movements were 
restricted for several days. For this reason, radio locations made < 

12 



7 days following surgery were not used in the analysis. 

Radio-tagged fish were located at least twice weekly by boat in 
summer, once weekly in spring and fall and 2 to 3 times per month in 
winter. We used a scanning programmable receiver and maneuvered the 
tracking boat in a zig-zag pattern from bank to bank when searching 
for fish. This zig-zag pattern gave us maximum coverage of the main 
channel. Once a fish was located, its geographic coordinates were 
determined using a Loran C navigation receiver interfaced with a 
Lowrance depth sounder. 

Lost radio-tagged fish were located using an airplane equipped 
with telemetry receiving equipment. We made the flights at altitudes 
of 500 to 600 ft and an airspeed of 80 knots. Antennae and receiver 
configuration were patterned after Gilmer et al . (1981). We tried to 
keep the airplane over the navigation channel when searching the 
mainstem and flew transects over the backwater lakes. 

We informed the public of the project and of the importance of 
returning each radio-tagged fish to the water and notifying us. We 
distributing press releases to local and regional newspapers, 
presented a brief project narrative in conjunction with local fishing 
derbies and invited members of the press to view surgical and fish 
locating demonstrations. 
Physical -Chemical Measurements and Habitat Descriptions 

Type of habitat and depth occupied were recorded each time a fish 
was located. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and current 
velocity were measured at the fish location approximately every third 



13 



time the fish was located. Dissolved oxygen and water temperature 
measurements were taken 0.5 ft. below the surface and 0.7 ft above the 
streambed. Current velocity measurements were made 0.7 ft above the 
streambed. We made the assumption the fish was on the streambed. 
Secchi disk transparency and conductivity were monitored in 1987 and 
1988. Total ammonia concentrations and pH from the middle of the 
water column were measured in 1988 using a Hach'^ kit and portable pH 
meter. These concentrations were corrected to provide un-ionized 
ammonia concentrations using an equation developed by Emerson et al . 
(1975). The Illinois State Water Survey conducted a comprehensive 
water quality investigation on the La Grange Pool in relation to the 
lock closures (Butts in prep.). 

We used the standard guidelines established by the Upper 
Mississippi River Conservation Commission (UMRCC) for classifying 
riverine habitats. 
The following definitions are modified slightly from Nord (1967). 

Main Channel The portion of the river through which commercial 

craft can operate. It has a minimum depth of 9 ft and a 

minimum width of 300 ft. A current always exists, varying in 

velocity with water stages. 

Main Channel Border The zone between the nine foot channel and 

the main river bank or islands. A current always exists, 

varying in velocity with water stages. 

Side Channels Departures from the main channel and main 

channel border in which there is current during normal river 

stages. 

14 



Backwaters Bodies of water connected with the river during 
normal water stages. Backwaters may or may not have slight 
current. 
Intensive Monitoring 

Intensive monitoring periods of 8 to 54 hours duration were 
conducted with select fish located every 2-4 hours in 1987 and hourly 
in 1988 (Appendix A). These fish were selected on the basis of their 
proximity to each other and to the navigation channel. By selecting 
fish that were less than < 1 mi from each other we could obtain more 
locations/fish/monitoring period. On 23 occasions, fish in main 
channel border and main channel habitats were monitored continuously 
immediately before, during and after a tow passed. 

DATA ANALYSIS 
The 24-hour day was divided into two periods to compare habitat 
and depth use between the two periods. Day extended from sunrise to 
sunset, and night sunset to sunrise. Seasonal boundaries were; spring 
1 March-19 June, summer 20 June-30 September, fall 1 October-15 
December and winter 16 December-28 February. 
Habitat Use vs. Availability 

Habitat use data are valuable but become more meaningful when 
presented in relation to the availability of the habitats. It is 
difficult to determine habitat availability values when the fish are 
distributed over 10-20 miles of a large river with fluctuating water 
levels. Fortunately the water levels were relatively stable for both 
years during the times we were monitoring fish. 



15 



The availability values used in the results sections entitled 
"Habitat Use in Relation to Lock Closure" and "Seasonal Habitat Use" 
were obtained by planimetrically measuring USACOE aerial photographs 
of the Illinois River Valley that were taken in 1979 and 1980. These 
photographs were complete with 2 ft elevation contours above the water 
surface. Proportions of the River considered main channel and main 
channel border were estimated by averaging proportions from 1987 
USACOE soundings of the study reaches. The area of each habitat was 
measured based on a water surface elevation of 430.5 ft (flat pool 
elevation = 429.2 ft) and an elevation of 436.0 ft (the average water 
surface elevation at which fish were monitored during the 1987 summer 
flood). The availability estimates include inundated areas connected 
to the mainstem from river mile 119.9 to 131.6 for 1987 and from river 
mile 107.2 to 131.6 for 1988. The longer study reach was used in 1988 
because the fish were more widely distributed. The last 1 mi of the 
tributaries, Spoon River and Quiver Creek, made up the tributary 
habitat area. The area of each habitat divided by the total surface 
area of the reach was the proportion of the habitat present and 
assumed to be available to the fish. 

Strauss' index of linear selectivity (L) (Strauss 1979) was used 
to determine if a habitat or depth category was selected for or 
against. 

L = % Used - % Available 
L was calculated for each depth category and habitat. A value of +1.0 
indicates high preference, a value of indicates the interval or 
category is not selected for or against (used at random), and a value 

16 



of -1.0 indicates complete avoidance. Although traditionally used as 
an index of food selection, Strauss' index was chosen instead of 
Ivlev's selectivity index (Ivlev 1961) because Strauss' is a linear 
index and calculated values can be statistically compared. 
Statistical Analysis of Use vs. Availability Data 

In the summer of 1988, 8 radio-tagged fish resided in a 1.5 mile 
stretch of the study area (Figure 5). This subset of fish was 
monitored intensively and the data were used in a more detailed use 
versus availability analysis. With 8 fish and four habitats 
available, Alldredge and Ratti (1986) recommend a minimum of 15 
observations/fish/period of interest to perform a similar type of 
analysis. Since we wanted to compare between night and day we limited 
our analysis to only those fish on which we had at least 15 
observations during the day and 15 at night. 

Surface areas of each habitat and depth category of the intensive 
study area were mapped using the transect method in late summer of 
1988. Water levels during that time were comparable to those during 
the periods of intense monitoring, thus making the use data compatible 
with the availability data. The transects were 131 ft apart on 
average (56 ft minimum, 182 ft maximum). Depth along each transect 
was recorded continuously using a recording depth sounder. From the 
map, the area of each component was measured. 



17 



CHAUTAUQUA LAKE 




QUIVCR CRk. 



Figure 5. Map showing intensive study area of 1988. 

18 



The criteria for defining habitats (e.g. main channel is the 
portion of the river through which commercial craft can operate and 
has a minimum depth of 9 ft) violates the assumption that depth 
and habitat are independent. To overcome this problem of dependence 
we combined main channel and main channel border to make a habitat 
type, navigable channel, where all depths were available for 
comparison to a non-navigable channel (side channel) where all depths 
were also available. 

A two-way ANOVA was used to test the L values between navigable 
channel and non-navigable channel and between time periods (alpha 
level= 0.05). This tested the Hq: there is no difference in 
selection and availability of habitats regardless of time period. 
Velocity Utilization 

Data collected in all seasons were used in the rest of the 
analyses. A two-way ANOVA was used to test the use of velocities 
between time periods and between seasons (alpha level= 0.05). If a 
significant difference was detected, Bonferoni's multiple comparison 
procedure was used to determine in which seasons velocity use differed 
significantly. An alpha level of 0.10 was used as the experimentwise 
error rate for all multiple comparisons. The higher alpha level was 
used because the pairwise error rate is the quotient of the 
experimentwise error rate divided by the number of pairs compared. 
Movement 

To analyze movements river mile was recorded to the nearest 0.1 
at each fish location. Movements of less than 0.1 mi were noted on 
the data sheets. The absolute differences between consecutive 



19 



locations summed was the total (gross) distance traveled. Net 
movement was the difference between the final location and initial 
location. Positive values (+) indicate net upstream movement and 
negative values (-) indicate downstream movement. Diel movement 
patterns were determined by dividing the distance traveled between 
consecutive locations by the number of hours between the consecutive 
locations. In the analysis of diel movement we limited the analysis 
to locations recorded < 4 hours apart in order to standardize 
comparisons between 1987 and 1988. 



20 



RESULTS 

Mortality and Transmitter Expulsion 

During late June and July of 1987 the radio-tagged channel 
catfish experienced unacceptable rates of transmitter loss and/or 
post-operative mortality. Fourteen of 25 implanted fish (56%) either 
died or expelled transmitters through the intestine or abdominal wall 
(as described by Marty and Summerfelt 1986). Four transmitters were 
found on shore above the high water line, leading us to believe the 
fish died and scavengers (opossum, raccoon) carried the carcass and 
transmitters up the bank. Fishermen found two carcasses. The 
mortality or loss of radio tags occurred from two to 45 days after 
surgery. Marty and Summerfelt (1986) reported expulsion of dummy 
transmitters by channel catfish as soon as 5 days following 
implantation. 

The high mortality was of great concern. Low river stages, high 
water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations typical of 
summer all probably contribute to general fish mortality. Spawning, 
bacterial infections and surgical implants were additional 
physiological stresses experienced by our channel catfish. 

We looked at these factors in an attempt to determine the cause 
of mortality. On 11 August 1987, two apparently healthy channel 
catfish were collected, implanted and placed in a 500-gallon tank of 
water from the Illinois River. Approximately 200 gallons of fresh 
river water was pumped in every other day. Water temperature was 79° 
F and dissolved oxygen levels ranged from 6.8 to 7.5 ppm. Three days 



21 



after surgery one fish had developed an abscess just anterior to the 
incision; the other fish appeared to be healing. On the fourth day 
the abscessed fish was still alive even though the infection was 
spreading, and the apparently healthy fish died. 

Necropsies were performed and bacterial cultures taken from each 
fish. Signs of intraperitoneal infection and septicemia were noted in 
the fish which died (Horner and Durham, Fish Pathologists, Illinois 
Department of Conservation, personal communication). In their 
opinions this fish succumbed to a bacterial infection it contracted 
before it was collected and would have soon died even without the 
stress of surgery. The abscessed fish also had a low grade systemic 
infection similar to that described above. The abscess was caused by 
an infection restricted to the musculature surrounding the incision. 
The infection that caused the abscess was probably introduced during 
surgery. The fish was immunologically unable to suppress two 
infections at once and would have died in several days. The bacterium 
Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the causative agent. This 
bacterium is common in aquatic environments and infects weakened fish 
(Cipriano et al . 1984). Low dissolved oxygen levels, (such as those 
we recorded at night, 1.9-3.5 ppm), elevated water temperatures, and 
increases in ammonia levels stress fish enough to allow aeromonad 
septicemias to develop (Lewis and Plumb 1979; Cipriano et al . 1984). 

Although A. hydrophila is ubiquitous in bodies of fresh water, it 
may be present in greater numbers in the Illinois River. Industrial 
and municipal effluents contribute significantly more to the base flow 
of the Illinois River than they do to other large rivers in the 

22 



Midwest. Some of these waste effluents may act as nutrient sources, 
causing some pathogenic bacteria (e.g. /I. hydrophila, Vibrio cholerae) 
to be present in higher than normal levels (Grimes et al . 1986). 
Modifications to Surgical Procedure 

We modified our surgical procedures in an effort to reduce 
handling stress and risk of infection. In mid-August 1987, 10 fish 
were captured and held for 24 hours in aerated well water that had 
warmed to 75° F. The water was treated with salt (NaCl) to adjust the 
salinity to 0.5% to compensate for osmotic imbalances caused by the 
stress of capture and holding. Even though holding feral fish for any 
period of time causes stress, we felt that the benefits of stable 
dissolved oxygen levels and cool, relatively aseptic water would 
outweigh the stress due to confinement. We could also check the 
postoperative progress of each fish. Transmitters were implanted 
using more sterile surgical techniques. The fish were returned to the 
same tank and fresh well water was added daily. On days 1 through 3 
the fish looked healthy and showed no sign of infection. On the third 
day, one half of the water was replaced with river water to acclimate 
the fish to natural conditions. After the river water was pumped into 
the tank, the suture holes, incisions and abrasions showed signs of 
reddening and swelling. It is unclear if this was a normal response 
to surgical stress or was in response to exposure to river water. The 
fish were released on day 4. We estimate that modifications in 
surgical procedures reduced mortality from approximately 50% to 25%, 
although bacterial infection probably still caused the deaths 



23 



following surgery. 

Based on this information we felt confident we could reduce 
mortality in the 1988 implants and eliminate the need for holding the 
fish prior to and after surgery by using more sterile procedures in 
the field and implanting earlier in the year (March & April) when 
water temperatures were lower. Rates of tag loss and/or mortality 
were much lower in 1988. Most of the transmitters were implanted in 
April and May and only 3 fish were found dead. One of the three had 
expelled its transmitter. 

Thirty-eight fish were implanted in 1987 and 48 were implanted in 
1988. Overall, 252 observations were made on 29 fish in 1987 and 729 
observations were made on 36 fish in 1988 (Appendix B and C). In 1987 
we estimate 39.5% died and 42% expelled their transmitter sometime 
during the life of the transmitter for a mortality and tag loss rate 
of 81.5%. Our estimates for 1988 are 6% mortality and 32% expulsion 
for a mortality and tag loss rate of 38%. 

Water Quality 

Water temperature (surface) peaked at 90.1 and 90.0°F in July 
1987 and August 1988 respectively (Figure 6). Surface and bottom 
water temperatures rarely differed by more than 1°. Dissolved oxygen 
levels were generally higher in the summer of 1988 than they were in 
summer of 1987. Un-ionized ammonia was present at levels of 0.05 to 
0.23 ppm. Sheehan and Lewis (1986) determined NH3-N concentrations > 
0.74 ppm (from ammonium chloride solutions at 70°F and pH > 6.0) were 
acutely lethal to juvenile channel catfish. Although the levels we 



24 



Mean Daily Water Temperature 




June July August September October 



< 


yu 






01 




A/\ ^^®^ 


1989 


o 








03 


80 


1 V' \ 




t 








IS 








(D 










70 


J \ 






60 


/ \ 






50 


- / \ 






40 


1 \ L 


1 



March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. 



Figure 6. Mean daily water temperatures of the Illinois River 
at Havana, Illinois. 



25 



recorded were not acutely toxic, chronic exposure at these levels may 

be stressful. Additional water quality data are presented in Appendix 

D and E. 

Habitat Use 

Habitat use in relation to lock closure 

Pre-Closure, 15 June to 13 July 1987 

Prior to lock closure side channel habitat was most preferred and 
main channel was least preferred (Figure 7). Main channel border was 
used in greater proportion than it was available and backwater areas 
were used in lesser proportions than available. This period coincided 
with the end of the channel catfish spawning season. A portion of the 
locations in the main channel and main channel border habitats may be 
due to the fish seeking and utilizing cavities in relation to 
spawning. Water levels were not high enough to create temporary 
backwater habitat. Tributary habitat use reflects use of tributaries 
by fish caught tagged and released in the mainstem, not by those fish 
caught, tagged and released in Spoon River. We captured, radio 
tagged, and released 4 channel catfish in the lower mile of Spoon 
River (Figure 5). All of these fish remained in the tributary and 
moved up the tributary an average of 5.1 mi. During the pre-closure 
period, mainstem fish used tributaries approximately in the proportion 
that they were available. 
During Closure, Low Flow, 14 July to 15 August 1987 

During the lock closure, low flow, there was a increase in use of 
main channel habitat but it was still not used in the proportion that 



26 



CD 
> 



15 

10 

5 



-5 

-10 

-15 

%US8 

%Aval. 

15 
10 
5 

-5 
-10 
-15 

%Use 
% AvaJ. 



Channel Catfish Habitat Use - 1987 

Pre-Lock Closure 



~ 


^ 


m 


N Fish1Iloni?or|^0 


^M ■ 


31 


38 


17 


8 NA 5 


43 


31 


6 


18 NA 2 



_43_ 



During Lock Closure (low flow) 



N Observations 15 
N Fish Monitored 5 



_31_ 



jm_ 



AB_ 



_NA_ 



_NA^ 



During Lock Closure (high flow) 



Post Lock Closure 



: 


I 


N Observations 92 
N Fish IVIonitored 8 





Bin 


1 12.5 1 


57 


12.5 18 1 1 


30 


20 


7 


11 30 1 ? 1 



'- 






■■ 


:| 


N Observations 59 
N Fish IVIonitored 9 


29 


31 


6 


29 NA 6 


43 


31 


6 


1R NA ? 



Main iVIain Side Backwater Temp. Tributary 
Channel Channel Channel Backwater 

Border 

Habitat Types 



Figure 7 



Habitat selection by radio-tagged channel catfish 
in relation to lock closure. 



27 



it was available. All habitat types were used approximately in the 
proportion that they were available. This period was the time of 
highest tributary use by mainstem fish. One fish that was radio 
tagged in the Illinois River 2 mi below the mouth of Quiver Creek 
moved 0.5 mi up the Creek (Figure 5) for two days and then returned to 
the Illinois River. 
During Closure, High Flow, 16 August to 7 Sept. 1987 

The high flows during the closure period (Figure 8) altered the 
availability of the habitat components. The radio-tagged fish sought 
the newly flooded vegetation that had grown on the mud flats and 
shorelines exposed during summer low flows. This accounts for the use 
of temporary backwater and increased use of side channel and main 
channel border habitats. The high selectivity values (L) for side 
channel habitat result from the utilization of a temporarily inundated 
abandoned channel (side channel without permanent flow). The fish 
utilizing the main channel during closure, prior to high flow, may 
have left the main channel to avoid higher velocities or may have been 
seeking forage on the inundated floodplain. 

Post Closure, 8 Sept. to 18 Nov. 1987 

As tow traffic resumed the water levels were slightly above 
normal but the availability estimates for surface elevation of 430.5 
ft were more accurate than those for high flow elevation. Backwaters 
had the highest selectivity value (L) and main channel had the lowest 
selectivity. Other habitats were used in approximate proportion to 
there availability. 



28 



X 

a. 
< 
cc 
o 
O 

DC 
Q 

>- 
X 

DC 
HI 
> 

DC 

o 






n 


















^ 




Q 


_ 




O 


03 






E 




lil 




a. 


Q. 




CO 


- « 




■z 












oc 


" 




{^ 


1 




z 






o 






k 


^ 


r 


LU 






1 







Ud) NOI1VA313 30VdynS d31VM 



Figure 8. Hydrograph of the Illinois River at Havana, IL 



29 



Fluctuating water levels, changing water temperatures and 
spawning behavior effect habitat selection. For the same reasons a 
"between seasons" or "between years" statistical analysis of these 
frequency data would not be valid. 
Seasonal Habitat Use 

In spring of 1987 a limited number of observations indicated 
side channel and main channel border habitats were used in greater 
proportion than they were available (Figure 9). In spring 1988 all 
habitats except main channel were used in greater proportion than they 
were available (Figure 10). Selectivity values (L) for main channel 
were -6 in 1987 and -25 in 1988. 

In the summer of 1987, under low flow conditions, side channel 
and backwaters had the highest selectivity values (L). In summer 
1988, side channel, main channel border and tributary habitats had 
positive electivity values (L) and main channel and backwaters had 
negative values. In 1988 water levels were not sufficient to create 
temporary backwater habitats as seen in 1987, in addition, the 
backwater habitat was extremely shallow (average depth < 3 ft). This 
may explain the negative selectivity (L) for backwaters in 1988. 
Habitat use during the high water levels in the summer of 1987 has 
been previously discussed in the Habitat Use in Relation to Lock 
Closure section. 

Four channel catfish were radio-tagged and released in Spoon 
River in the summer of 1987. These four fish remained in the 
tributary. In 1987, no radio-tagged fish from the Illinois River 
moved into Spoon River but one did move into Quiver Creek temporarily. 

30 



Channel Catfish Habitat Use - 1987 



CO 
CD 

CO 

> 









Spring 








10 


^ 


^B N Observations 6 
^B N Fish Monitored 4 


-5 
-10 


:^ 


■ 


-20 


37 5 


37 5 


25 





NA 







43 


31 


6 


18 


NA 


2 



10 

5 



-5 

-10 

-15 

-20 

%USE 
4 AVAIL 

50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

-10 
-20 
-30 

%USE 





Summer (low 


flow) 






^H — 


- H^l 


^^ N Observations 99 
N Fish Monitored 13 


27 


27 


14 


26 


NA 


6 
? 


43 


31 




18 


NA 





Summei^high 


flow) 








- 


^■1 N Observations 
^H N Fish Monitored 


92 
8 


(0^^ 


_ ^ 




12.5 


57 


12.5 


18 





30 




7 


11 


30 


2 







Fall 








- 


1 


N Observations 33 
N Fish Monitored 7 




^ 


"■ 


40 


45 





14 


NA 





43 


31 


6 


18 


NA 


2 



Main 
Channel 



Mam 
lanne 
Jorder 



CJhahnel 
Borde 



Channel 



Backwater Temp. 

BackWater 



Tributary 



Habitat Types 



Figure 9. Seasonal habitat selection by radio-tagged 
channel catfish in 1987. 



31 



CO 
CD 

_^ 
CO 

> 



20 
10 

-10 
-20 

%USE 
% AVAIL 



Channel Catfish Habitat Use - 1988 

Spring 




Main 
Cliannel 







?^iimmpr -^ 


^ ^ ^ 


- 


■ 


N Observations 557 
N Fish IVIonitored 22 


1 - 20 4? 24 b y 


46 33 11 9 1 



Fall 




N Observations 81 
N Fish Monitored 1 3 



TT 



11 









Winter 








20 


- 






1 




1U 




■■H— 



-10 
-20 


7^ 


^^" 




N Observations 6 
N Fish Monitored 3 




33 


2i 


22 


17 


V 


% AVAIL 


46 


31 


11 


9 


1 



Main 

Cliannel 

Border 



Side 
Channel 



Backwater Tributary 



Habitat Types 



Figure 10. Seasonal habitat selection by radio-tagged 
channel catfish in 1988. 



32 



In 1988, no fish were radio- tagged and released in Spoon River, 
however, two fish did move into the tributary and stayed in the 
tributary until they expelled their transmitters in late summer. 

During the fall of 1987 and 1988, main channel border and main 
channel accounted for 85 and 82% of the locations, respectively. Main 
channel border had the highest selectivity values (L) of any habitat 
in the fall. Main channel had negative selectivity values (L) but 
they were some of the highest values recorded for main channel in any 
season. Behavioral shifts to deeper areas in response to the cooler 
water temperatures in fall (Figure 6) may explain the high selectivity 
values (L) recorded for main channel and main channel border. 

Radio-tagged channel catfish were not observed in the winter of 
1987 (16 December 1987-28 February 1988). A limited number of 
observations in the winter of 1988 indicated side channel and 
backwater areas were used in greater proportion than they were 
available. A rise in water levels may explain the higher use of side 
channel and backwater habitats and consequently the lower use of main 
channel than in the fall of 1987 and 1988. If the water levels would 
have remained stable, we would expect higher selectivity values (L) 
from the deeper main channel and main channel border habitats. 
Statistical Analysis of Habitat Use vs. Availability 

The difference in selection of navigable and non-navigable 
channel was not significant (P = 0.11) for the subset of fish that was 
intensively monitored in the summer of 1988. The mean selectivity 
values (L) were positive for non-navigable channel and negative for 
navigable channel (Table 1). There was no significant difference in 

33 



a — 
o <o 
1- > 



T3 "O 

c 



o TJ -a "D 



D D 3 



o o o o 



o o o o 



c c c c c 



oooooooo 



•-0000000 



oooooooo 



o o o o o o 



t>^ rvj in r^ ro in 
oooooo <D (0 ra 

c c c 

oooooo 



tM St «- 

o o •- 
ccccccooo 



fM rj cj 

(D<DCD(0CD<DOO«— 

c c c c c c • • • 
o o o 



o o o o o o o 



^o^oc^^o<\looln'-oo 
«-ro~»^oooo-«-f'i>* 

or-^oh«-roo^O(M 
o«-r'iin>oeoc>«-ro 



o « 
Q. a. 

o a< 



34 



selection of day and nighttime habitats (P = 1.0). As previously 
stated, main channel border and main channel were combined into 
navigable channel to make depth independent of habitat thus allowing 
navigable channel to be compared to side channel. Depths from 3.4 to 
8.2 ft had higher selectivity values (L), often positive, in all habitat 
types except backwater where these depths were available in very 
limited proportions (e.g. <0.01; Table 1). 
Movement 
Long-Term Movement Patterns 

Movement data was collected on 24 and 33 fish in 1987 and 1988 
respectively (Table 2). A mean gross movement of 3.9 mi was recorded 
in 1987. Two fish exhibited net upstream movement averaging 1.5 mi, 
10 fish had no net movement and 8 fish had a net downstream movement 
averaging 6.6 mi. Four fish moved up Spoon River, a major tributary 
in the study area, an average of 5.1 mi. These fish were released in 
the tributary near the mouth and remained in the tributary for all of 
1987. One fish released in the Illinois River moved up Quiver Creek 
0.75 mi but returned to the Illinois River two days later. 

Mean gross movement in 1988 was 3.3 mi (Table 2). Six fish had a 
net upstream movement averaging 1.9 mi, 12 fish had no net movement 
and 13 fish moved downstream an average of 3.4 mi. Two fish moved up 
Spoon River an average of 2.4 mi. These fish were from a site in the 
Illinois River 0.75 mi upstream of the tributary mouth. 



35 



E C 

E C 



c -■ 



^ fM 



36 



Radio- tagged fish were sedentary most of the time. In 1987, 83% 
of movements were <0.11 mi, in 1988 the figure rose to 91.5%. Some 
fish did exhibit sporadic long distance movements. In 1987 and 1988 
respectively, 5.3% and 2.7% of the movements were > 1.0 mi. Movements 
of individual radio-tagged fish are presented in Appendix F and G. 
Seasonal Movement Patterns 

Mean distance moved/day peaked in late spring/early summer in 
1987 and 1988 (Figures 11 and 12). The increased long range movements 
seen in 1987 occurred in conjunction with water level fluctuations as 
well as a late summer flood. Movements in 1988 increased in late fall 
for a short period. Fish generally exhibited more movement in summer 

1987 than in 1988. We feel this probably can be attributed to the 
extremely low stable water levels present in 1988. 

In 1987 mean gross movements peaked at 5.1 mi and mean net 
movements were downstream and peaked at -3.0 mi during summer (Table 
3). Mean gross movements in 1988 were similar for spring (1.9 mi), 
summer (2.0 mi) and fall (1.3 mi). Gross movements during winter 
increased to 3.5 mi. This increase in winter is probably due to 
fluctuating water levels. Mean net movements were downstream in the 
spring (-1.2 mi) and summer (-0.6 mi) and upstream during fall (0.4 
mi). Winter net movements were downstream (-3.3 mi). 

Fish were most sedentary during the fall of 1987 and summer of 

1988 with 96.7% and 95.5% of movements <0.11 mi, respectively (Table 
3). Long range movements (>1.0 mi) were most frequent during summer 

37 



(Aep/saiiUJ) iN3W3AOI^ NVBIftl 

<o -^ C\J 

odd 



I 




<n 








u. 




1- 




< 




o 




-J 




UJ 




z 




z 




<r 


h- 


I 


UJ 


o 


S 


Q 


UJ 

> 


LU 




O 


;^ 


(D 


>- 


< 


-1 


H 


< 


6 


Q 

t: 


Q 


< 


< 


UJ 



f2 

z 

UJ 

liJ 

s 




in 


o 


If) 


CO 


CO 


C\l 


■^ 


"^ 


■^ 



(nsi^ aAoqe laa^) NOIlVA3ia BOVdUns H31VM 



Figure 11. Movements of radio-tagged channel catfish in 1987. 



38 



(Abp/S9|!Uj) 1N3^3A0I/^J NV31^ 



T 


»7 


O 


z 

LU 


n 




LiJ 

o 


O 


o 


^ S 


< 


>- O) 


h- 


_J T- 


o 


< 


Q 


z 


< 


< 


cc 


^ 



o 

Z 
LU 

LU 




(nSIM SAoqe jesi) NOIiVA313 BOVdUnS bl3iVM 



Figure 12. Movements of radio-tagged channel catfish in 1988, 

39 



(M >t O 
O P^ S- 



o <o in r- 
fo >o in ro 



o o o 
o o o 



o o o o^ 
o o o ro 



r- o o 
o r^ «- 



(\i <o ^ ro 
»- o o to 



ro nO o 
o N- s. 



o o o 
o o o 



o o o o 
o o o <M 



^ ^ o 
o in •- 



o nO ro 
o in o 



o 


o 


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St M 


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in to 



in >* ro K) 
00 lO O ro 



ro in ro lo 



40 



of 1987 (5.6%) and during spring (9.2%) and fall (5.4%) of 1988. 
Die! Movement 

In 1987 diel movement peaked at 700 ft/4 hr from 1600-2000 hours 
(Figure 13). A well defined peak in activity was not observed in 
1988. Maximum and minimum movements were 210 ft/4 hr from 2000-2400 
hours and 25 ft/4 hr from 1200-1600 hours, respectively. 

Movements in Relation to Lock Closure 
Pre-Closure, 15 June to 13 July 1987 

Radio-tagged fish exhibited a gross movement of 1.6 mi and a net 
downstream movement of 1.3 mi during the pre-closure period (Table 4). 
Most movements recorded (76.1%) were <0.11 mi, with only 2.2% >1.0 mi. 

During Closure, 14 July to 7 Sept. 1987 

During the period of lock closure the mean gross movement rose to 
2.4 mi. The net movement was still downstream 0.3 mi. The frequency 
of movements <0.11 mi increased slightly to 79.3%. Movements >1.0 mi 
increased to 6.9%. 

Post-Closure, 8 Sept. to 18 Nov. 1987 

Gross movements increased to 5.4 mi and net movement was 
downstream 4.4 mi following reopening of the locks (Table 4). The 
frequency of short range movements remained stable, however, long 
range movements increased to 8.5%. 



41 



DEL MOVEMENTS OF RADIO-TAGGED CHANNEL CATFISH 





700 - 


- ■- 1987 






^^ 




^ 










! \ 




^ 


600 - 


1— 1988 






, > 




r^ 










' ', 


















£. 








/ 


' 


















T3 


500 - 






' 


* 


















> 








, 






o 








, 


, 




S 








» 


1 




a> 


400 - 






! 


\ 




o 








1 


t 




c 














CO 




,-■--- 


, 






>^ 


w 


300 - 


,'' 


"■■-■' 






', 


b 




,''' 








\ 


c 














ra 




^M 








1 J. 


CD 


200 - 

100 - 

- 


"^ "^ ~^~^^^ 




^ 


^ 


\ 




, . 1 1 


1 ' 


1 


' 1 


1 ■ 



TIME PERIOD (HOURS) 



Figure 13. Diel movements of radio-tagged channel catfish. 

42 



1- <u 



(M ro in 

r>- ©> r^ 



o o o 

o o o 



<Nj in 



«- ro 



43 



Movement in Response to Tow Passage 
In relation to lock closure 

Navigation traffic levels before and after the 56-clay closure 
period reached conservative levels predicted to occur in the Zl^"- 
century (Figure 14). The frequency of tows followed the pattern 
predicted but the pre-closure peak was in May and early June. We did 
not have any fish radio tagged in May and we only had a few radio 
tagged in early June. The traffic peak after the locks reopened was in 
November and December when tracking conditions were unsafe and a 
limited number of transmitters were still broadcasting. 

The design of the Peoria and La Grange locks are an exception to 
most of the locks in the Upper Mississippi River system. These locks 
use collapsible wickets to control pool levels. A situation called 
open pass can be created when water levels are high and the wickets 
are laid down. In this situation tows pass over the dam instead of 
through the lock. 

The flood that occurred in August and persisted through the 
middle of September (Figure 8) allowed the resumption of tow traffic 
(open pass) for a week prior to the formal reopening of the locks. 

None of the radio-tagged fish were located in the main channel 
immediately before or after the locks reopened and only two fish 
selected the main channel border (the remaining fish were utilizing 
backwaters, temporary backwaters and side channels apparently in 
response to the high water levels). These two fish were monitored 

44 



Commercial Lockages at La Grange and Peoria, IL 




tSMIIISIIfllll 




o 5 -5 CO z 



MIISIMItll 



1987 



1988 



Figure 14. Commercial lockages at Illinois River locks at Li 
Grange and Peoria, IL. 



45 



intensively as the first tows passed when the locks reopened. 

One of these fish occupied a sunken barge where it was probably 
protected from propeller and wave wash. This fish was approximately 
75 ft from the edge of the main channel. The other fish was 250 ft 
from the edge of the main channel. The two fish were monitored during 
11 tow passages. 

We defined a response as detectable movement, usually movements 
greater than 15 ft. Occasionally we could tell if a fish was moving 
shorter distances by the changing signal strength. We did not want the 
presence of our tracking boat to influence the fish's behavior so we 
made these location estimates by triangulation. 

Responses were observed during passage of; 1 of 3 downstream 
tows, 5 of 8 upstream tows, 1 of 2 empty tows, 3 of 4 fully loaded 
tows, and 2 of 5 partially loaded tows. Overall, responses were 
observed during 6 of 11 tow passages. The mean distance moved for 
these six observations was 73 ft. We did not detect responses to tows 
passing over 230 ft from the fish. There was no clear trend to 
indicate movement to deeper or shallower water or to cover. 

Response to tow passage throughout the study 

Radio-tagged fish were monitored as individual tows passed 
throughout the study. Several trends are suggested by the results in 
Table 5. Radio-tagged channel catfish > 131 ft from the tow 
responded more often than those < 131 ft. Fish in the main channel 



46 



Table 5. Radio-tagged channel catfish movement in relation to tow 
passage throughout the study. 



Movement (ft) 



QUESTION Yes No Mean Min Max 



Did fish respond to tow passage 12 11 80 197 

Did fish < 131 ft from tow respond 
Did fish > 131 ft from tow respond 



4 


5 


60 


16 


197 


8 


4 


90 


49 


197 


6 


5 


103 


16 


197 


5 


4 


110 


16 


197 


1 


1 


66 


- 


- 



Did fish respond to upbound tow^ 

Upbound, full 

Upbound, empty 
Did fish respond to downbound tow^ 

Downbound, full 3 1 79 49 131 

Downbound, empty no passages observed in this category 

Did fish respond to number of units in tow 
Number of units 



1-5 


3 


2 


46 


16 


66 


6-10 


2 


5 


87 


59 


115 


1-15 


7 


2 


108 


26 


197 



^ partially loaded tows not included 



47 



border may be disturbed by the drawdown effect created by passing 
tows. Fish < 131 ft from the tow were mostly located in or near the 
main channel. These fish were often associated with cavities, or 
structures such as sunken barges or logs. Fish moved in response to 
52% of the tow passages (Table 5) and there seems to be a relation 
between the distance moved and the number of units in a tow. For 
further information see Appendix H. 

We want to point out that in all of our observations (routine, 
intensive, and in relation to passage of individual tows) the radio- 
tagged fish were never located near the center of the 300-ft-wide main 
channel. Rather, they were usually at the bottom of the steep decline 
defining the edge of the main channel border and main channel (Figures 
15 and 16). 
Depth Selection 

Mean depths selected in spring 1987 and 1988 were similar, 7.2 
and 6.6 ft respectively (Figure 17). The range of depths selected was 
slightly wider in 1988. 

The mean depth selected in summer 1987 was 1.9 ft less than it 
was in the spring and 1.7 ft less than in the summer of 1988. There 
was a slight increase (0.4 ft) in mean depth selected from spring to 
summer in 1988. 

Average depth selected in the fall of both years was deeper than 
in previous seasons. Depths for both years are similar (8.2 ft in 
1987 and 8.7 in 1988). A wider range of depths were selected in 1988. 

48 




laaj uj mdaQ j8}bm 



X - Designates usual location of fish when occupying the main 
channel . 



Figure 15. Cross section of the Illinois River at river mile 
121.0. 



49 




jaaj ui Ljidaa j81Bm 



X - Designates usual location of fish when occupying the main 
channel . 



Figure 16. Cross section of the Illinois River at river mile 
120.6. 



50 



Channel Catfish Depth Selection 



20 



15 



10 



Ql 
CD 

Q 



_ 






1987 


* 6 


172 


32 





** 3 


21 


7 






Spring 



20 



15 



£10 
Q. 
CD 

Q 
5 



Spring 



Summer 



Summer 



Fall 



Fall 



Season 



* - Number of observations 
** - Number of fish monitored 



Winter 



- 






• 




1988 






' ' 


■ 






* 93 


550 


81 


6 


**26 


22 


14 


3 



Winter 



Figure 17. Depth selection by radio-tagged channel catfish. 

51 



A limited number of observations were made in the winter of 1988 
and no observations were made in the winter of 1987. Mean depth 
selected in winter 1988 was similar to the mean depth selected in the 
fall 1988, 8.4 and 8.7 ft respectively. The narrow range of depths 
selected in winter is probably a result of the limited number of 
observations. 
Velocity Selection 

Velocities selected in different seasons varied significantly. 
Higher velocities were selected in fall -winter and spring than were 
selected in summer (P < 0.05; Table 6). Velocities selected during 
day and night were not significantly different (P = 0.77). 

The difference between seasons is statistically significant, but 
it is probably not biologically significant. Mean velocities selected 
in all seasons are within or near the range classified as most 
suitable (0.0-0.49 ft/s) for channel catfish in cover areas during 
average summer flow (McMahon and Terrell 1982). 



52 



Table 6. Mean current velocities (ft/s) selected by radio-tagged 
adult channel catfish. 



Season Period N Obs Mean Minimum Maximum 



Fall-Winter 


Day 


26 


0.56 


0.00 


1.48 


Spring 


Day 


36 


0.56 


0.00 


1.15 




Night 


3 


0.92 


0.89 


0.98 




Combined 


39 


0.59 


0.00 


1.15 


Summer 


Day 


85 


0.39 


0.00 


1.02 




Night 


49 


0.43 


0.00 


1.02 




Combined 


134 


0.39 


0.00 


1.02 



53 



DISCUSSION 

Few investigators have reported on the habitat use and movement 
of channel catfish in navigable rivers using data collected from 
radio-tagged fish. To our knowledge, no other investigators have 
looked at adult channel catfish behavior in response to tow traffic. 

Dames (1988) and Grace (1985) used radio telemetry to monitor 
channel catfish in the Missouri River and Stang and Nickum (1985) and 
Pellett and Fago (1985) have monitored channel catfish in the Upper 
Mississippi River. Dames' work was primarily focused on use of 
tributaries and Graces' work centered on winter movement and habitat 
use. Pellett and Fago's telemetry objectives were to document seasonal 
movement. Stang and Nickum had objectives similar to ours but our 
observations were more frequent and our habitat use analysis includes 
a use vs. availability analysis. Other studies regarding channel 
catfish habitat use in navigable rivers are based on underwater 
observations (Hawkinson and Grunwald 1979; Lubinski 1984) or hoop-net 
catches (Ragland 1973; Ellis et al . 1979; Hubert 1981). Many channel 
catfish movement studies based on mark and recapture data have been 
conducted in large rivers (e.g. McCammon 1956; Hubley 1963; Hesse et 
al. 1982; Pellett and Fago 1985; Hale et al . 1986; Dames 1988). 

Several expert panels (e.g. Harber et al . 1981; Kennedy et al . 
1981) discussed the potential direct impact by tows on the different 
life stages of channel catfish and concluded juveniles were probably 
at greatest risk since they frequently inhabit the main channel. 



54 



Spawning adults and larvae may also be disturbed by the currents and 
shear forces tows create. There have been several studies that 
document habitat utilization by adult channel catfish in relation to 
potential navigation related impacts. Hawkinson and Grunwald (1979), 
Lubinski (1984), and Stang and Nickum (1985) documented channel 
catfish overwintering in deep areas of the main channel and main 
channel border. These authors all concluded that dredge spoil should 
not be deposited in thalweg areas with extensive cover. They also 
concluded that winter navigation would make these areas unsuitable for 
overwintering. 

Mortality soon after surgical implantation of the transmitter was 
a major problem in the initial 1987 tag set. Mortality coupled with 
transmitter expulsion in the fish that did survive accounts for the 
small number of fish monitored and low number of observations/fish. 
Adoption of more sterile surgical techniques later in 1987 may have 
helped increase survival from -50% to -75%. The transmitters were 
implanted one to two months earlier in 1988 and mortality was much 
lower (6%). The lower water temperatures at the time of implantation 
and the consistently higher, more stable dissolved oxygen levels 
throughout the spring probably accounted for most of the increase in 
survival. Transmitter expulsion, estimated at 42% in 1987 and 32% in 
1988, was still a problem. Summerfelt and Mosier (1984) reported a 
71% expulsion rate. 

Several physical -chemical factors probably were stressful to fish 
in the Illinois River during the study period. We determined un- 
ionized ammonia was present at levels of 0.05 to 0.23 ppm at pH 

55 



72 


7.77-8.41 


82 


7.91-8.25 


75 


7.75-8.12 



ranging from 8.3 to 8.9 in 1988. These concentrations are not lethal 
to juvenile channel catfish in acute tests (Sheehan and Lewis 1986) 
but may be sufficient to stress channel catfish. Concentrations >0.05 
ppm resulted in slower egg to swim-up fry development times and 
concentrations > 0.33 ppm reduced channel catfish larvae growth rates 
(Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982b). Roseboom and Richey (1977) and 
Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982a) determined acute toxicity of un- 
ionized ammonia, to channel catfish fry (<0.5 oz). 

Investigator Un-ionized ammonia Temperature pH 

LC50 (ppm) (°F) 

Roseboom and Richey (1977) 1.5 

Roseboom and Richey (1977) 3.0 

Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982a) 1.45 

High ammonia levels can contribute to A. hydrophila infections 
(Cipriano et al . 1984). Levels of dissolved oxygen fluctuated 
throughout the study (range 1.1 to 18 ppm) and levels were often low 
enough to be considered stressful (e.g. 1.1, 2.0, 3.4 ppm). 

Fish usage of the main channel did increase during the low flow 
period during lock closure. However, the main channel still was not a 
preferred habitat (utilized in the proportion it was available). We 
feel changes in habitat use were also associated with seasonal changes 
in behavior and water level fluctuations as well as differences in 
traffic levels. 

The period before lock closure coincided with the channel catfish 



56 



spawning period (late spring). Channel catfish frequently spawn in 
cavities (Marzolf 1957; Deacon 1961; Pflieger 1975). It is possible 
that there are more exposed roots along the main channel border than 
in side channels because of wave wash caused by boats. If late spring 
water levels are high enough -- channel catfish may be attracted to 
cavities among the roots. If drawdowns and wave wash reduce hatching 
success and fry survival, the net effect is negative: i.e. channel 
catfish are induced to spawn in areas where hatching success will be 
low. In the main channel steep clay banks with crevices and cavities 
probably provide suitable spawning sites but, in light of the currents 
created by passing barges the hatching success of these nests may not 
be high. On one occasion (July 11, 1988) we located one of our radio- 
tagged channel catfish in a cavity along the main channel border. In 
the course of exploring the cavity, we came into contact with the fish 
and caused it to flee. 

The flood that began one week prior to the locks reopening 
created an abundance of temporary backwaters. The channel catfish 
moved into the inundated vegetation characteristic of temporary 
backwaters as soon as the areas were flooded to a 0.5-to-l-ft depth. 
Guillory (1979) also found channel catfish moved into floodplain 
habitats as they were inundated. This shift in habitat generally put 
the fish far from main channel and main channel border habitats as the 
locks reopened. 

The use of the main channel after the locks reopened (late summer 
and fall) is probably due to decreasing water temperatures. Other 
investigators have reported that channel catfish select deeper water 

57 



as water temperature declines in the fall (Stang and Nickum 1985; 
Dames 1988). This shift to deeper habitats was also documented in the 
fall of 1988. 

The frequency of each category of movement did not vary greatly 
in relation to lock status and barge traffic. Movement increased as 
the water levels fluctuated in late summer. The increase in the 
movements > 1.0 mile category is due to several fish making long 
downstream movements (up to 27 mi) as water levels receded. 

Only fish in the main channel and main channel border responded 
to tow passage. As the locks reopened no fish were located in the 
main channel and only two fish were in the main channel border. These 
two fish moved during 6 of 11 tow passages. The mean distance moved 
for these six observations was 73 ft. Throughout the study, 
individual fish exhibited movement during 12 of 21 tow passages. When 
a fish responded it moved an average of 87 ft/passage. One reason the 
average movement/passage is greater for the entire study rather than 
immediately after lock opening may be that one of the two fish 
occupied a sunken barge where it was probably protected from propeller 
and wave wash. 

There was no clear trend to indicate movement to deeper or 
shallower water or to cover as tows passed. Radio-tagged channel 
catfish > 131 ft from from the tow responded more often than those < 
131 ft. This may be a result of disturbance of the fish located in 
the shallower main channel border by the drawdown created by passing 
tows. Fish < 131 ft from the tow were mostly located in or near the 



58 



main channel. These fish were often associated with cavities, a 
sunken barge, or logs--possibly seeking protection from propeller and 
wave wash. Although the frequency of disturbance does not appear to 
be related to the number of units in a tow, when a response was 
observed there seemed to be a relationship between distance moved and 
the number of units in a tow (1-5 units/tow, 6-10 units/tow, and 11-15 
units/tow caused an average movement of 46 ft, 87 ft, and 108 ft 
respectively). Downbound tows were more likely to cause a response 
(response 75% of the time) than were upbound tows (response 54% of the 
time). Holland (1986) found upbound empty tows to have more of an 
impact on freshwater drum eggs than downbound loaded tows, but 
immediate mortality of larval fish was not significant. Shear-related 
mortality of larval paddle fish has been documented (Killgore et al . 
1987). Bhowmik et al . (1981a) report that drawdown is affected by 
vessel velocity, vessel length, distance to the sailing line and 
draft. 

Passage of individual tows did not influence the habitat 
selection or movement of channel catfish to the extent we had 
hypothesized, however, during the course of the study we observed 
individuals of several species of fish that had been damaged by 
passing tows. Two channel catfish and two flathead catfish were found 
floating in the main channel with portions of their bodies either 
partially or completely severed. In the most vivid case, a 24-lbs 
portion of a flathead catfish was found floating in the main channel 
500 ft behind an upbound tow. This fish was completely severed 
immediately behind the dorsal fin but was still trying to swim. More 

59 



frequently observed were partially or completely severed buffalo 
{Ictiobus sp.)- We observed at least 20 individuals still alive and 
upwards of 100 dead severed fish. The dead severed fish cannot 
positively be attributed to contact with tow boat propellers because 
they might have died from other causes and then been drawn into the 
propellers. Gizzard shad {Dorosoma cepedianum) were frequent victims 
but the number of individuals observed in the fall was much greater 
than in other seasons. When water temperatures declined to 
approximately 50°, passing tows would be observed churning up hundreds 
of live young-of-year (3 to 4 inches total length) gizzard shad. These 
individuals would rarely be severed but they would have bloody eyes 
and mouths which, in our opinion was the result of the extreme shear 
forces generated by the propellers. These fish usually had mud under 
their scales and gill covers on one side of their body. Herring gulls 
and ring-billed gulls were quick to take advantage of this phenomenon. 
Flocks as large as 200 birds were observed following the tows and 
feeding on the stunned gizzard shad. 

Utilization of habitats and depth changed with the seasons. In 
spring and summer side channel, main channel border, and tributary 
habitats were generally more preferred than backwaters and main 
channel. Side channel was always the most preferred habitat. Spring 
depth selection averaged approximately 7 ft in both years. From 
spring to summer 1987 average depth selected decreased 1.9 ft as a 
result of fish utilizing the shallow temporary backwaters created by 
the late summer flood. Average depth selected in summer of 1988 was 



60 



slightly deeper than in spring. In fall the main channel border was 
utilized more than in any other season and had the highest selectivity 
value (L) of any habitat. In 1987 and 1988 average depth selected in 
the fall was deeper than it was for either summer. In winter, side 
channel and backwaters had the highest selectivity values (L) but more 
stable water levels may have resulted in higher selectivity values for 
the deeper main channel and main channel border habitats. The average 
depth selected decreased slightly in winter. 

The change from use of shallow areas such as backwaters and 
shallow portions of main channel border and side channels in spring 
and summer to main channel and deeper portions of main channel border 
and side channels in fall and winter has been documented (Stang and 
Nickum 1985). In our study the average depth selected in spring and 
summer is 0.9 ft less than was reported by Stang and Nickum and is 
within the range reported for channel catfish in smaller streams 
(Dames 1988). Fall and winter average depth selection was 5.5 ft less 
than what was reported by Stang and Nickum but within the range listed 
by Dames. The difference in the relative abundance of deep areas in 
this study compared to the study conducted on the upper Mississippi 
River by Stang and Nickum probably accounts for the difference in fall 
and winter depth selection. Larimore and Garrels (1982) reported 
winter average depth selection of 2.5 ft in a small stream. 

Hawkinson and Grunwald (1979) and Lubinski (1984) found the over- 
wintering sites were always in or adjacent to the main channel on the 
outside of a bend. We also found that whenever we located a fish in 
the main channel or main channel border in fall and winter it was 

61 



always on the outside of a bend. The greater depth, possible 
increased bed irregularities due to natural scouring, and greater 
debris accumulation in these areas may explain the attraction for 
channel catfish. We did, however, locate some of our channel catfish 
in backwaters and side channels in fall and winter. Another telemetry 
study conducted on wintering channel catfish found that the fish 
selected deep scour holes at the mouths of tributaries (Grace 1985). 

Depth and habitat utilization information is valuable but becomes 
much more meaningful when it is compared to the availability of each 
component. In the preceding discussion concerning habitat 
utilization, main channel border, side channel and main channel were 
the most used habitats in all seasons. However, main channel and main 
channel border habitats make up -80% of the available habitat. When 
the use was compared to availability, side channels were regularly 
used in greater proportion than they were available. This indicates 
side channels were being selected over the main channel. Main channel 
border selectivity varied from positive to negative with the seasons. 
Overall main channel border was used approximately in the proportion 
it was available. Stang and Nickum (1985) also alluded to this point 
in their discussion of the use of off-channel areas in proportion to 
the availability of the habitats. 

In the analysis of the intensive monitoring data we again found 
that non-navigable channel (side channel) was preferred over navigable 
channel although the difference in electivity was not significant (P = 
0.11). Ragland (1973), using hoop nets, reported channel catfish were 



62 



caught more frequently in side channels than in the main channel 
border. Conversely, Hubert (1981) reported hoop net catch rates for 
channel catfish were higher in the main channel border than they were 
in adjacent side channels with similar environmental variables. One 
likely reason why our conclusions do not concur with Hubert's is that 
the main channel on the Illinois River makes up a larger portion of 
the main stem than it does on the Mississippi River; thus a fish in 
the main channel border is generally in closer proximity to passing 
tows on the Illinois River (Figures 15 and 16). Successional stage of 
individual side channels is thought to dictate fish community 
structure in side channels (Ellis et al . 1979). He reported a 
riverine side channel with high velocities and little sedimentation 
yielded higher hoop net catch rates of channel catfish than did a 
lacustrine side channel. 

In a stream with riffle-pool development, young-of-year channel 
catfish made diel shifts in habitat and depth (Deacon 1961). He 
reported they were ten times more abundant in shallow riffles at night 
than during daytime. He went on to speculate that adults probably 
exhibit the same pattern of habitat selection. We determined that the 
selection of habitats did not differ between night and day (P = 1.0). 
Diel changes in depth selection were not noted either. Depths from 
3.4 to 8.2 ft had higher electivity values, often positive, in all 
habitat types except backwater where the maximum depth was 6.6 ft. We 
feel large channel catfish may be more sedentary and more of an ambush 
predator like flathead catfish (Becker 1983). 

Higher velocities were selected in fall -winter and spring than in 

63 



summer (P < 0.05). Although the difference between seasons is 
statistically significant, they may not be biologically significant. 
Velocities selected during day and night were not significantly 
different (P = 0.77). Stang and Nickum (1985) reported average bottom 
velocities at channel catfish locations were 0.49 ft/s and 0.89 ft/s 
in spring-summer and fall -winter, respectively, which were comparable 
to our values of 0.48 ft/s and 0.56 ft/s. However, the maximum 
velocities we documented were generally twice as high as theirs. Mean 
velocities selected in all seasons are within or near the range 
classified as most suitable for channel catfish (0.0-0.49 ft/s) in 
cover areas during average summer flow (McMahon and Terrell 1982). 
Other velocities reported in winter were 0.0-0.9 ft/s (Hawkinson and 
Grunwald 1979) and 0.21 ft/s (Larimore and Garrels 1982). 

Our results from diel monitoring showed peak activity from 1600- 
2000 hours in 1987 and 2000-2400 hours in 1988. Ziebell (1973) and 
Dames (1988) recorded peak activity from 2100-0100 hours and Bailey and 
Harrison (1945) found that channel catfish feed most actively from 
sundown to midnight. Radio-tagged fish were more active in terms of 
distance moved/4 hr in 1987. This is probably due to changing water 
levels throughout most of the diel monitoring period in 1987. 
Flathead catfish are most active at night (Robinson 1977; Dames 1988). 

Channel catfish in rivers occasionally make movements in excess 
of 200 mi (Hubley 1963) but often 24 to 57% of tagged individuals are 
recaptured within 2 miles of where they were initially captured (Funk 
1955; McCammon and LaFaunce 1961; Hubley 1963; Welker 1967; Hesse et 



64 



al . 1982; Hale et al . 1986) and in one study site 95% of the 
individuals showed no appreciable movement (Hesse et al . 1982). 
Results from these studies employing conventional tags have to be 
interpreted on an individual basis because variables such as methods 
of recapture, duration of study, size of river, etc. vary widely, but, 
there does appear to be a portion of the population that does not 
move. We found that 50% and 39% of our radio-tagged fish exhibited 
net movements <0.11 mi in 1987 and 1988 respectively. 

When movement greater than 2 miles occurs it is usually seasonal. 
A general consensus is channel catfish move downstream during winter 
months (McCammon 1956; Grace 1985; Pellett and Fago 1985). Grace 
(1985) found fish moved 0.8 to 87.9 miles downstream during winter 
months and moved farther in less severe winters. During fall and 
winter in Wisconsin, channel catfish move downstream 6.1 to 66.9 miles 
until they reach overwintering areas (Pellett and Fago 1985). Dames 
(1988) found upstream movement in the fall at rates greater than 164 
ft/day but no movement in the winter. Channel catfish are more active 
in spring and summer (Stang and Nickum 1985) with spring movements 
both up and downstream (Dames 1988) and into tributaries (Grace 1985; 
Pellett and Fago 1985; Dames 1988). We observed downstream movement 
with means ranging from 0.1-3.3 mi in all seasons except fall of 1988 
when radio-tagged fish moved upstream an average of 0.4 mi. The 
portion of the population moving upstream usually moves farther than 
the portion moving downstream (Hale et al . 1986; Dames 1988) but not 
always (Welker 1967). In this study the fish moving downstream moved 
farther than the fish moving upstream. 

65 



Dames (1988) and Hesse et al . (1982) have reported that 20 and 
23% respectively of the channel catfish populations in the Missouri 
River move into tributaries, however, Hubley (1963) found that only 
4.5% of the tagged fish moved from the Mississippi River into 
tributaries. We recorded 3% of our radio-tagged fish moving from the 
Illinois River into tributaries in 1987 and 4% moving into tributaries 
in 1988. Dames hypothesized that channel catfish in the Missouri 
River may be substituting tributaries for off-channel areas. Although 
many Illinois River off-channel areas have been drained and the 
remaining ones are threatened by sedimentation, the Missouri River has 
been channelized so extensively that off-channel areas are essentially 
non-existent. 

We want to point out that in all of our observations (routine, 
intensive, and in relation to passage of individual tows) the radio- 
tagged fish were never located near the center of the 300 ft wide main 
channel. Rather, they were usually located in side channels and main 
channel border. The fish that were in the main channel were at or 
near the bottom of the steep decline defining the edge of the main 
channel border and main channel (Figures 15 and 16). 

Schools of juvenile channel catfish inhabit the main channel in 
the late summer and fall (Starrett unpublished data; Helms 1975; 
Holland-Bartels and Duval 1988). Navigation may have the greatest 
direct impact on the channel catfish population at the juvenile life 
stage and the greatest indirect impact on adult members of the 
population since the juvenile life stages occupy the main channel and 



66 



are closer to moving tows while the adults are utilizing areas other 
than the main channel. 

It is our conclusion that the main channel of the Illinois River 
in its present state is not as desirable for adult channel catfish as 
side channel or main channel border habitats. It is used, however, 
during spring (up to 38% of the locations; probably in conjunction 
with spawning attempts) and fall -winter (40% of the locations) when 
channel catfish are overwintering near the thalweg. 

Bottom profiles reveal a marked contrast between the main channel 
and side channel in terms of diversity of depths and underwater 
structure (Figure 18). Maintenance dredging, moving bed loads and the 
propeller wash of passing tows smooth the bed of the main channel. 
Structures in the form of trees that are transported into the river at 
high flows are usually broken up by tows and/or transported to the 
main channel border by propeller wash. One explanation offered for 
the high use of side channels by riverine fish is the velocity in the 
side channels is significantly lower (Schramm and Lewis 1973). While 
we do not contest this point, we feel that there may be other factors 
at work. The average velocity (not average velocity at fish 
locations) in the side channel in this study was one third of the 
average velocity recorded in the main channel. But velocities at fish 
locations in the two different habitats were similar. It may be that 
average velocities are not affecting channel catfish spatial 
distribution but may be affecting spatial distribution of forage. 

We also think the more natural state of side channels affects the 
fish community structure. The diversity and abundance of structures 

67 



i3dd Ni Hidaa 




LU 



DEPTH IN FEET 



Figure 18. Comparison of bottom profiles of the main 
channel and side channel. 



68 



and features (consequently diversity of velocities), and diversity of 
depth may be attracting a diverse community with high numbers of 
certain species. Sylvester and Broughton (1983) concluded the larger 
populations and higher number of species they found in side channel 
and backwaters as opposed to main-channel areas was due to decreased 
habitat diversity in main-channel areas. In light of the loss of 
backwater habitat on the Missouri River (Funk and Robinson 1974), 
Dames (1988) concluded the channel catfish population in a portion of 
the Missouri River substituted lower reaches of tributaries for 
backwater habitat. 

Currently there are three side channels between Havana and the 
Peoria Lock and Dam (37.8 mi) that are inundated only at relatively 
high river stages. The length of these abandoned channels, as side 
channels are called when they are only inundated at high flows, totals 
6.7 mi as compared to the 3.5 mi of open side channels. Abandoned 
channels are natural features of alluvial rivers and during high 
water, are important areas for larval fishes (Conner et al . 1983) and 
adult gizzard shad, sunfishes, and some minnows (Sandheinrich and 
Atchison 1986). But active side channels are turned into abandoned 
channels in regulated rivers by closing structures or high 
sedimentation rates. Because the main channel in navigable rivers is 
fixed in place by levees, wing dams, closing structures, and dredging, 
no new side channels are allowed to form by natural meandering or cut- 
offs. 



69 



MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 

Since only large adult channel catfish were monitored in our 
study, any recommendations for management only apply to that portion of the 
population. Juvenile and smaller adults may behave differently and 
warrant further investigation. 

1. Convert abandoned channels back into side channels by dredging. 
Currently the USACOE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and 
Conservation agencies from the Upper Mississippi River states are 
evaluating the feasibility of opening select side channels on the 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers in conjunction with a larger plan 
to rehabilitate fish and wildlife habitats on both rivers (Schnick 
et al. 1982; USACOE 1985). A wide variety of riverine fishes 
including channel catfish use side channels at some life stage and 
would benefit from the re-openings. 

2. Habitat suitability models exist for select large river fish 
species such as the channel catfish (McMahon and Terrell 1982), 
flathead catfish (Lee and Terrell 1982) and the smallmouth buffalo 
(/. bubalus) (Edwards and Twomey 1982). These models are mostly 
based on data from streams, small rivers, ponds and reservoirs. 
Information on habitat requirements of channel catfish in 
navigable rivers is limited. Data concerning macrohabitat and 
particularly microhabitat requirements are needed so habitat 
suitability models can be modified for large river applications. 
Accurate, comprehensive (e.g. all seasons, all life stages), 

70 



models will be important in evaluating and planning future 
rehabilitation and mitigation projects. 
3. Tow-induced mortality of larval and adult fish should be 
quantified. A study should be undertaken with the samples taken 
from the tow. Larval fish change their vertical and horizontal 
distribution throughout the day usually moving near the surface of 
the main channel and backwater habitats from dusk into nighttime 
(Holland and Sylvester 1983) so samples should be taken both night 
and day. Nets and trawls should be used because fish with severed 
air bladders do not show up on surface counts and accurate surface 
counts are not possible at night. If such a study is undertaken 
it should span all seasons to quantify changes in mortality rates 
due to cooler water and impaired swimming ability, and changes in 
habitat selection and abundance. 



71 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

1) Thirty-eight channel catfish were radio tagged in 1987 and 48 in 
1988. Overall 252 observations were made on 29 fish in 1987 and 
729 observations were made on 36 fish in 1988. 

2) High (56%) post-operative mortality and tag loss occurred in the 
initial set of fish radio tagged in 1987. Post-operative 
mortality was reduced to 25% by revising surgical implantation 
techniques and by radio tagging fish in April and May. 
Transmitter expulsion rates were estimated to be 42% in 1987 and 
32% in 1988. 

3) During the period of low flow and lock closure in 1987 usage of 
main channel habitat increased, but still was not a preferred 
habitat (used in the proportion it was available). Usage of 
backwater and temporary backwater increased with increased water 
levels which expanded the area and depth of the backwaters and 
made them accessible to the channel catfish. Following the 
resumption of tow traffic, as water temperatures decreased and 
water levels receded, usage of main channel and main channel 
borders increased. But use of main channel never reached the 
level recorded during lock closure and low flow and was never used 
to the extent that it was available. 



72 



4) Utilization of habitats changed with the seasons. In spring and 
summer side channel, main channel border, and tributary habitats 
were generally more preferred than backwaters and main channel. 
Side channel was the most preferred habitat. Fish utilized 

the shallow temporary backwaters created by the late summer flood 
in 1987. Use of backwater habitats declined in 1988 because the 
low water levels made these areas unsuitable. In fall the main 
channel border was utilized more than in any other season and was 
the most preferred habitat. In winter, side channel and backwaters 
were the most preferred habitats. 

5) In the intensive study area in the summer, non-navigable channel 
was selected in greater proportion than it was available and 
navigable channel was selected in lesser proportion than it was 
available but the difference was not statistically significant 
{P=0.11). 

6) There was no difference in selection of habitat between day and 

night. 

7) Depths between 3.4 and 6.6 ft were selected in greater proportion 
than they were available in the intensive study area in the 
summer. 



73 



8) A portion of the radio- tagged population was sedentary with 50% 
and 39% of our radio-tagged fish exhibiting net movements <0.11 mi 
in 1987 and 1988 respectively. We found that 83% of daily 
movements were <0.11 mi in 1987 and 91.5% in 1988. The 10 fish 
that moved > 0.11 mi in 1987, moved an average net distance of 5.6 
mi and the 19 fish that moved > 0.11 mi in 1988, moved an average 
net distance of 2.9 mi. The maximum movement recorded was 
downstream 27.4 mi following the late summer flood of 1987. 
Average gross movement for the population for both years combined 
was 3.6 mi . 

9) Movement peaks were in the summer of 1987 and in late spring/early 
summer in 1988 and were also associated with fluctuations in water 
levels. 

10) Diel movements peaked between 1600-2000 hours in 1987 and 2000- 
2400 hours in 1988. 

11) Increases in movement during the period of lock closure were 
due to a late summer flood. 

12) Channel catfish exhibited movement averaging 80 ft in response to 
52% of the tow passages monitored. 

13) When a response (detectable movement) was observed, the distance 
moved was positively related to the number of units in the tow. 



74 



14) Channel catfish > 131 ft from the tow responded more often 
than those < 131 ft--probably because of wave wash and drawdown 
having more effect in shallow water along shore. 

15) Average depths selected in spring and summer (7.25 and 6.5 ft 
respectively) were shallower than average depths selected in fall 
and winter (8.5 and 8.4 ft respectively). 

16) Bottom current velocities at fish locations differed between 
seasons but not between day and night. Highest velocities were 
selected in spring (0.59 ft/s) and lowest velocities in summer 
(0.39 ft/s). 

17) There are three side channels between Havana and the Peoria Lock 
and Dam (37.8 mi) that are inundated only at relatively high river 
stages. The length of these abandoned channels totals 6.7 mi as 
compared to the 3.5 mi of open side channels. Abandoned channels 
are natural features of alluvial rivers and are important areas 
for different life stages of many fishes during high water. But 
active side channels are turned into abandoned channels in 
regulated rivers by closing structures or high sedimentation 
rates. Because the channel in navigable rivers is fixed in place 
by levees, closing structures, etc. no new side channels are 
allowed to form. Converting abandoned channels back into side 
channels is feasible. A wide variety of riverine fishes including 
channel catfish use side channels at some life stage and would 
benefit from the re-openings. 



75 



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82 



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83 



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84 



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For Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission Technical Reports, please write 
to: Upper Mississippi River Basin Association 
415 Hamm Building, 408 St. Peter Street 
St. Paul, MN 55102 



85 



Appendix A. Date, duration, and relative water level for intensive 
monitoring periods. 



Date 


Relation to 
Lock Closure 


Number 

Hours 

Monitor 


of 
of 
ing 


Relative Water 
Levels 


9-10 July 1987 


Before 


24 




Low 


2-4 September 1987 


During 


54 




High 


9-10 September 1987 


After 


24 




Low 


21-22 June 1988 


not applicable 


24 




Low 


23 June 1988 


not applicable 


8 




Low 


7-8 July 1988 


not applicable 


11 




Low 


12-13 July 1988 


not applicable 


15 




Low 


4-5 August 1988 


not appl icable 


18 




Low 


22-24 August 1988 


not applicable 


42 




Low 



86 



Appendix B. Information on channel catfish radi o- tagged in 1987. Frequency prefix 
indicates capture locatation: A=Illinois River near Anderson Lake, C=Illinois River 
near Chautauqua Levee, S=Spoon River, T=Illinois River near Tow Head Island. 



Last Minimum Died, 
Fish Length Weight Date Date # of Days Expelled 
Number (in.) (LBS) Implanted Alive Alive or Failed 



Number 
of 
Locations 
N DV NV A Total 



C1355 


23.0 




06/03/87 06/23/87 


20 


DIED 


3 


3 


6 


C1209^ 


23.0 




06/03/87 














C1439 


25.0 




06/03/87 07/30/87 


57 


EXPELLED 


12 3 


4 


19 


CU32 


25.0 




06/10/87 


07/02/87 


22 


EXPELLED 


2 


2 


4 


CU55 


23.0 




06/10/87 07/07/87 


27 


UNKNOWN 


4 


2 


6 


C1406 


23.5 




06/10/87 






DIED 








C1092 


23.0 




06/10/87 


06/11/87 


1 


DIED 


1 




1 


C0086 


23.5 




06/22/87 07/16/87 


24 


UNKNOWN 


2 




2 


C0011 


24.0 




06/22/87 


07/01/87 


8 


EXPELLED 


2 




2 


C1447 


22.0 




06/22/87 07/10/87 


18 


UNKNOWN 


4 2 


1 1 


8 


C0036 


25.0 




06/22/87 


11/18/87 


149 


ALIVE 


35 4 


14 4 


57 


C0061 


23.5 




06/22/87 


11/18/87 


149 


ALIVE 


7 




8 


T0210 


21.5 




07/02/87 07/14/87 


12 


UNKNOWN 


7 


1 1 


9 


T0110 


21.0 




07/02/87 09/21/87 


81 


EXPELLED 


20 3 


1 1 


25 


T0186 


20.0 




07/02/87 


07/07/87 


5 


EXPELLED 


2 




2 


T0136 


20.5 




07/02/87 


- 


- 


UNKNOWN 








T0161 


20.0 




07/02/87 


- 


- 


DIED 








T0236 


23.5 




07/06/87 


07/07/87 


1 


DIED 


1 




1 


S1112 


21.0 




07/06/87 


08/12/87 


37 


UNKNOWN 


4 




4 


S1088 


20.5 




07/08/87 


08/24/87 


47 


UNKNOWN 


4 


1 


5 


S1012 


20.0 




07/08/87 


08/07/87 


30 


LOST 


3 


1 


4 


S1038 


22.5 




07/08/87 


08/07/87 


30 


LOST 


1 




1 


S1060 


24.0 




07/08/87 






LOST 








T1139 


22.0 




07/17/87 






DIED 








T1161 


24.0 




07/17/87 






DIED 








E0186 


24.0 




08/13/87 


EXPERIMENTAL 


DIED 








E0161 


22.0 




08/13/87 


EXPERIMENTAL 


SACRIFICED 






T1092^'^ 


25.5 




08/21/87 


09/17/87 


27 


EXPELLED 


8 5 


2 


15 


T1139^'^ 

C0471^ 

C0011^'^ 


24.0 




08/21/87 


09/01/87 


11 


EXPELLED 


3 






24.0 




08/21/87 


10/19/87 


59 


ALIVE 


11 




11 


23.5 


5.0 


08/21/87 


10/19/87 


59 


UNKNOWN 


17 3 


2 2 


24 


C1161^'5 


23.5 


6.0 


08/21/87 


09/02/87 


12 


DIED 


3 1 


1 




T0498'^ 


22.0 


4.0 


08/21/87 


08/31/87 


10 


DIED 


1 






C0161^'^ 


24.0 




08/25/87 


10/22/87 


58 


DIED 


1 






T0186^'^ 


22.0 




08/25/87 


10/19/87 


55 


ALIVE 


4 






CU32^'^ 


23.5 




08/27/87 


09/04/87 


8 


ALIVE 


7 3 


2 


12 


A0161^ 


22.0 




10/13/87 






? 


4 


1 




A1439^ 


22.5 




10/13/87 


03/30/88 


168 


? 


5 


2 





D=Daytime, N=Nighttime, DV=Daytime with velocity measurement, NV=Nighttime 

with velocity measurement, A=Airplane, Total=Total number of observations 

Female still with eggs 

Experimental transmitter, limited broadcasting range 

Implanted date shown, held in tank for postoperative care until 08/25/87. 

Reimplanted transmitter 

Implanted date shown, held in tank for postoperative care until 08/31/87 



87 



Appendix C. Information on channel catfish radio-tagged 



Minimua 

Fish Date Last Date # days 

Number Implanted Located Alive 



Number of Length Weight Capture 

Locations (in.) (lbs) Sex Battery Comments Location 
N DV NV A Tot 



48.111 

48.038 

48.063 

48.013 

48.311 

49.872 

48.411 

49.900 

48.336 

48.362 

48.385 

49.137 

49.942 

49.092 

48.497 

48.484 

48.461 

48.562 

48.288 

48.162 

48.511 

48.237 

48.536 

48.137 

48.761 

48.186 

48.213 

48.734 

48.660 

48.587 

48.711 

48.788 

48.687 

48.862 

49.013 

48.911 

48.986 

48.962 

48.611 

49.051 

49.036 

48.888 

48.088 

48.111E 

48.638 

48.837 

48.237 

48.814 



04/19/88 
04/19/88 
04/26/88 
04/26/88 
05/03/88 
05/03/88 
05/04/88 
05/04/88 
05/04/88 
05/04/88 
05/05/88 
05/05/88 
05/05/88 
05/05/88 
05/13/88 
05/17/88 
05/17/88 
05/17/88 
05/18/88 
05/18/88 
05/18/88 
05/18/88 
05/18/88 
05/19/88 
05/19/88 
05/19/88 
05/19/88 
05/19/88 
05/24/88 
05/24/88 
05/24/88 
05/24/88 
05/24/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
05/25/88 
10/03/88 
10/03/88 
10/03/88 
10/04/88 
10/04/88 
10/05/88 
10/11/88 



05/23/88 

05/10/88 
07/10/88 
05/16/88 
07/22/88 
10/25/88 
07/25/88 



08/17/88 
08/18/88 
08/19/88 
05/23/88 
05/23/88 
07/25/88 



06/01/88 
07/05/88 
10/06/88 



10/17/88 
11/10/88 
06/09/88 
07/14/88 

06/24/88 
08/19/88 
07/28/88 
07/12/88 
11/10/88 

07/25/88 
06/24/88 
08/18/88 



12/16/88 
12/08/88 
12/08/88 
12/08/88 
11/10/88 
10/24/88 
12/08/88 



14 
75 
13 
80 
174 



104 
105 
106 
18 
18 
69 



18 4 

2 

5 
33 12 



5 
14 
19 14 

1 

1 
28 15 



14 1 1 
48 4 2 
141 6 3 



151 12 1 

175 27 12 2 3 

21 1 1 1 

56 7 11 

31 5 1 

87 15 1 2 

65 8 11 

49 10 6 4 3 

170 46 20 7 8 

61 25 17 8 7 

30 16 8 6 2 

85 36 20 5 7 



10/24/88 152 8 



21.50 

24.00 

21.50 

23.00 

24.00 

25.50 

24.00 

23.00 

25.00 

27.75 

22.00 

23.00 

25.50 

20.50 

22.50 

23.50 

23.50 

21.50 

22.50 

24.50 

25.00 

25.00 

25.50 

23.00 

27.50 

26.00 

26.00 

22.50 

22.50 

22.50 

23.50 

22.00 

20.20 

21.50 

20.50 

22.50 

22.50 

22.00 

24.00 

22.00 

22.00 

19.00 

23.5 

22.00 

26.00 

20.50 

23.00 

22.00 



4.2 
6.0 
4.8 
5.5 
5.5 
8.1 
5.4 
5.8 
8.8 
10.6 
4.5 
4.3 
7.5 



8.5 
7.5 
7.8 
6.7 
9.8 
7.0 
7.1 
5.4 
6.0 



1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

ATS 

1/2A 

ATS 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

ATS 

1/2A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

1/2A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

2/3A 

1/2A 

1/2A 



Chau.Leve 
Chau.Leve 



Dog F. 

Dog F. 

Mud L 

ATS 3 mo Mud L 



Last yrs 
ATS 3 mo 
Last yrs 
Last yrs 



repa 
repa 



repai 
repai 

new s 
new s 
new s 
new s 
new s 



13P/1 



red THI 

red Chau.Leve 

THI 
red THI 

Chau.Leve 
red Matanza 

Matanza 
red Matanza 
red Matanza 

Matanza 
tyle2 from 
tyleTHI 
tyle3 from 
tyleChaut . 
tyle " 

THI 

THI 

THI 

THI 

THI 

THI 

THI 

THI 

Chau.Leve 

Chau.Leve 

Chau.Leve 

Chau.Leve 

Chau.Leve 
5S THI 

Chau.Leve 



D=Daytime, N=Nighttime, DV=Daytime with velocity measurement, NV=Nighttime 
with velocity measurement, A=Airplane, Total=Total number of observations 



88 



Appendi; 



D. Select environmental parameters measured in 1987. 
Dissolved Oxygen Water 

Cone, (ppm) Temp. ( F) 



Date Fish # Time Habitat 



Conductivity 
(umhos/cm) 



Surface Bottom Surface Bottom 



06/03/87 C1209 






06/04/87 CU39 






06/08/87 CU39 






06/15/87 C1355 


1040 


SC 


06/15/87 C1439 


1110 


MC 


06/18/87 CU32 


1000 


MCB 


06/18/87 C1355 


1100 


SC 


06/18/87 CU55 


1120 


MC 


06/18/87 CU39 


1140 


MCB 


07/02/87 C1432 


2015 


MCB 


07/06/87 




TRIB 


07/09/87 T0210 


1420 


SC 


07/09/87 C0036 


1500 


MCB 


07/09/87 C1439 


1530 


MC 


07/09/87 C1447 


1550 


MC 


07/09/87 T0210 


2219 


SC 


07/09/87 C0036 


2309 


MCB 


07/10/87 C1447 


24 


MCB 


07/16/87 C0086 


1300 


MC 


07/17/87 T0210 


1250 


MCB 


07/27/87 S1088 


1430 


TRIB 


07/27/87 S1112 


1449 


TRIB 


07/27/87 T0210 


1518 


MCB 


07/28/87 C0036 


1045 


MCB 


07/30/87 C0036 


945 


MCB 


08/05/87 C0036 


1450 


MCB 


08/10/87 C0036 


1430 


MCB 


08/17/87 




MC 


08/18/87 




MC 


08/20/87 C0036 


1103 


SC 


08/20/87 T0110 


1200 


SC 


08/20/87 C0036 


1230 


SC 


08/26/87 




MC 


09/01/87 C1161 


1500 


SC 


09/02/87 T1092 


1730 


MCB 


09/02/87 C1161 


1946 


SC 


09/02/87 T0110 


2003 


TBW 


09/02/87 C0036 


2019 


TBW 


09/02/87 C0011B 


2100 


SC 


09/03/87 T1092 


357 


MCB 


09/03/87 T1092 


856 


MCB 


09/03/87 C1432B 


1000 


BW 


09/03/87 C0011B 


1205 


SC 


09/03/87 T1092 


1705 


MCB 


09/03/87 C1432B 


1730 


BW 


09/03/87 C0011B 


; 1919 


SC 


09/04/87 T1092 


50 


MCB 


09/04/87 C1432B 


1 135 


BW 


09/04/87 C0036 


236 


SC 


09/04/87 T0110 


316 


TBW 


09/04/87 C0011B 


1 433 


SC 


09/04/87 T1092 


832 


MCB 


09/04/87 T1092 


1135 


MCB 



550 
560 
560 





4.6 




84.0 






5.4 


84.0 


82.0 






5.9 


84.0 


82.9 






5.2 


84.9 


84.6 






6.3 


84.7 


83.7 






6.9 


84.7 


84.4 




6.6 




79.0 
86.0 


79.7 






6.7 


85.6 


84.9 






6 


83.8 


83.8 






5.7 


84.0 


83.3 






5.7 


84.2 


83.3 






6 


83.5 


83.7 






5.7 


83.7 


83.7 






5 


83.3 


83.3 


12.4 


8.4 


8.1 


79.9 


79.3 


12.2 


6.9 


2.7 


90.0 


86.9 




6.9 


1 .1 


90.1 


87.1 




5.3 


4.4 


88.3 


87.6 


13.5 


4.3 


4 


86.4 


86.5 


13.7 


4.6 


3.6 


87.6 


86.7 


13.0 


6.8 


6.5 


83.7 


83.5 


10.9 
9.5 
8.5 


4.5 


4.2 


81.5 


81.3 




4.9 


4.8 


80.8 


80.6 




4.5 


4.3 


81.3 


81.1 


10.7 
10.7 
9.0 


6.7 


6.4 


71.6 


71.4 




5.7 


5.8 


71.1 


71.1 




6.2 


6.2 








6.5 


6.5 


70.9 


70.9 




6.5 


6.3 


70.3 


70.5 




5.3 


5.5 


69.1 


69.4 




5.6 


4.9 


69.4 


69.3 




9.6 


6.3 


70.2 


69.4 




6.1 


4.8 


72.3 


70.7 




8.3 


6.2 


73.4 


72.5 




13.3 


5.8 


75.6 


72.1 




6.4 


5.8 


70.9 


70.9 




5.2 


5 


70.2 


70.2 




8 


8.1 


70.9 


71.2 




5.5 


5.6 


70.5 


70.7 




5.7 


5.7 


70.2 


70.2 


7.5 


5 


4.3 


71.4 


70.5 





560 



Appendix 


D cont, 


Select environmental 


parameter 


•s measured in 


1987. 












Dissolved 


Oxygen 


Water 




Conductivity 










Cone. 


(ppm) 


Temp 


. (°F) 


Seech i 


(umhos/cm) 


Date 


Fish # 


Time 


Habitat"" 


Surface 


Bottom 


Surface Bottom (in) 


Surface 


09/04/87 


C1432B 


1202 


BW 


10.9 


6 


74.8 


72.3 






09/04/87 


C0036 


1239 


SC 


5.7 


5 


70.7 


70.5 






09/04/87 


C0011B 


1340 


SC 


5.5 


5.1 


71.2 


71.1 


8.5 




09/08/87 


C0036 


1029 


MCB 


6.1 


5.8 


75.9 


75.9 






09/08/87 


T1092 


1205 


BW 


6.5 


6.2 


77.2 


76.6 






09/08/87 


C0036 


1615 


MCB 










12.5 




09/14/87 






MC 










11.0 




09/21/87 


T0110 


1345 


TBW 


5.5 


5.5 


67.1 


67.1 






09/21/87 


C0036 


1420 


MCB 


7.2 


6.9 


68.4 


68.2 


10.0 




09/21/87 C0011B 


1450 


SC 


7.8 


7.4 


68.4 


68.4 






09/24/87 


C0011B 


927 


SC 










11.0 




09/28/87 


C0471 


943 


BW 


8.7 


5.2 


69.1 


68.5 






09/28/87 


C0011B 


947 


BW 


7.5 


2.2 


69.4 


68.4 






09/28/87 


C0036 


1027 


MCB 










11.5 




10/05/87 


C0471 


930 


BW 


9.8 


2 


52.7 


52.7 


11.0 




10/05/87 


C0036 


1010 


MCB 


9.5 


9.2 


56.1 


56.1 


11.0 




10/05/87 


C0061 


1050 


MC 


9.4 


9.3 


56.5 


56.3 






10/07/87 






MC 










11.5 




10/19/87 


C0011B 


1226 


MC 


9.8 


9.8 


55.0 


55.0 






10/19/87 


C0036 


1357 


MCB 


9.2 


9.2 


55.8 


55.8 







Habitat designations: MC=Main Channel, MCB=Main Channel Border, SC=Side Channel 
Border, BW=Back Water, TBW=Temporary Back Water, TRI B=Tributary stream 



90 



Appendix E. Select environmental pars 



Dissolved Oxygen 
Cone, (ppm) 



ters measured ir 
Water 



Temp. ( F) 



Cond. 
Secchi (umhos/cm) 



NH, (NH,-N) 



Date Fish # Time Habitat^ Surface Bottom Surface Bottom (in) Surface pH (ppm) (ppm) 



03/18/88 U39 


1300 MCB 






40.1 






03/30/88 1439 


1115 MCB 


9.5 


8.9 


49.6 


49.5 


410 


04/08/88 1439 


1115 BW 






55.4 


55.4 


455 


05/02/88 63 


931 BW 


17.2 


18.0 


61.9 


61.5 


500 


05/05/88 13 


1330 SC 






64.4 






05/06/88 13 


1005 SC 


9.0 


9.2 


65.8 


65.7 




05/06/88 13 


1400 SC 


11.4 


9.9 


67.5 


66.2 




05/10/88 13 


955 SC 






68.0 




600 


05/11/88 13 


1110 SC 










600 


05/11/88 311 


1412 MCB 






68.9 






05/13/88 1137 


1228 BW 


9.0 


8.0 


73.0 


72.7 


620 


05/13/88 1942 


1403 MCB 


8.0 


8.0 


70.5 


70.2 




05/13/88 13 


1420 MCB 


8.0 


8.0 


70.3 


69.8 




05/13/88 1900 


1432 SC 


8.0 


7.0 


69.6 


69.4 




05/16/88 1900 


915 SC 






70.7 




13.0 650 


05/20/88 411 


1200 MC 


8.4 




70.9 






05/24/88 1900 


1514 SC 






75.2 




5.9 610 


06/01/88 288 


900 MCB 


7.0 


6.6 


76.5 


76.3 




06/01/88 510 


1020 SC 


7.6 


7.5 


77.2 


77.0 




06/01/88 1942 


1032 SC 


8.0 


6.2 


79.2 


76.1 




06/01/88 587 


1245 MCB 


9.1 


8.3 


79.0 


77.9 




06/01/88 162 


1540 MC 


9.1 


8.1 


78.8 


78.1 




06/02/88 162 


2000 MCB 


8.1 




80.1 






06/02/88 687 


2142 MCB 


8.2 


8.2 


79.9 


80.1 




06/02/88 1013 


2250 MC 


8.3 


8.1 


79.7 


79.9 




06/02/88 484 


2335 MCB 


8.1 


8.1 


79.3 


79.7 




06/04/88 137 


850 MCB 


7.7 




77.0 






06/06/88 484 


755 MCB 


7.2 


6.4 


75.7 


76.3 




06/06/88 1900 


1010 SC 


7.7 


6.8 


77.7 


77.2 




06/06/88 510 


1023 SC 


7.6 


7.4 


77.4 


77.2 




06/06/88 911 


1050 MCB 


7.5 


7.0 


77.2 


77.0 




06/07/88 687 


845 MC 


7.5 


6.7 


77.0 


77.0 




06/07/88 213 


925 MCB 


7.5 


7.4 


77.4 


77.2 




06/07/88 1013 


1020 MC 


7.9 


7.3 


77.9 


77.2 




06/07/88 711 


1230 TRIB 


12.4 


10.2 


77.5 


76.6 




06/08/88 788 


920 SC 


6.7 


6.7 


77.0 


77.2 




06/08/88 510 


935 SC 


6.2 


6.0 


76.3 


76.5 




06/09/88 587 


945 MCB 


5.1 


4.6 


73.6 


73.8 


13.4 


06/09/88 162 


1107 MCB 


5.2 


5.4 


74.1 


74.1 




06/09/88 186 


1230 MC 


6.2 


5.2 


75.0 


74.5 




06/09/88 137 


1355 MCB 


6.2 


5.8 


75.7 


75.7 


13.4 


06/14/88 162 


1045 MCB 






75.2 






06/14/88 788 


1334 SC 










725 


06/15/88 711 


945 TRIB 






78.8 




9.8 575 


06/15/88 1013 


1200 MC 






77.9 




11.8 775 


06/16/88 761 


1130 MC 










9.1 790 


06/16/88 1137 


1440 MCB 


7.5 




80.6 






06/21/88 911 


846 MCB 


6.0 


5.7 


81.7 


81.3 




06/21/88 484 


900 MCB 


5.6 


5.6 


81.7 


81.5 




06/21/88 1013 


915 MC 


6.1 


5.4 


82.2 


81.7 




06/21/88 1900 


936 SC 


6.0 


5.3 


82.0 


81.7 




06/21/88 986 


949 SC 


6.4 


5.5 


82.0 


81.7 





91 



Appendix E cont. Select environmental parameters measured in 1988. 







D 


issolved 


Oxygen 


Water 


Cond. 








Cone. 


(ppm) 


Temp. 


(°F) 


Secchi (umhos/cm) 


Date F 


ish # 


Time Habitat 


Surface 


Bottom 


Surface 


Bottom 


(in) Surface 


06/21/88 


687 


1003 MC 


6.2 


5.5 


82.4 


82.0 




06/21/88 


911 


1241 MCB 


7.7 


6.0 


84.6 


82.4 


14.2 800 


06/21/88 


484 


1250 MCB 


7.6 


5.8 


84.4 


82.4 




06/21/88 


1013 


1302 MC 


7.8 


5.3 


84.2 


82.2 




06/21/88 


1900 


1327 SC 


6.9 


6.2 


83.8 


83.1 




06/21/88 


986 


1336 SC 


6.9 


6.1 


83.5 


82 




06/21/88 


687 


1354 MCB 


6.5 


5.6 


84.7 


82.8 




06/21/88 


911 


1642 MCB 


7.3 


6.1 


85.8 


83.5 




06/21/88 


484 


1652 MCB 


6.6 


5.9 


84.2 


83.7 




06/21/88 


1013 


1659 MC 


6.5 


6.0 


83.8 


83.3 




06/21/88 


1900 


1719 SC 


6.7 


6.1 


84.0 


83.7 




06/21/88 


986 


1726 SC 


6.5 


5.9 


83.7 


83.5 




06/21/88 


687 


1748 MCB 


6.6 


6.6 


88.3 


83.8 




06/21/88 


484 


2155 MCB 


5.8 


5.6 


83.1 


83.3 




06/21/88 


911 


2205 MC 


5.8 


5.6 


82.9 


82.9 




06/21/88 


1013 


2217 MC 


5.6 


5.7 


82.9 


82.9 




06/21/88 


986 


2230 SC 


5.3 


5.5 


82.9 


82.9 




06/21/88 


1900 


2240 SC 


5.6 


4.8 


82.8 


82.9 




06/22/88 


687 


255 MCB 


5.1 


5.2 


82.8 


82.8 




06/22/88 


911 


310 MCB 


5.3 


5.2 


82.8 


82.6 




06/22/88 


484 


320 MCB 


5.1 


5.1 


81.5 


81.7 




06/22/88 


1013 


330 MC 


5.2 


5.2 


82.8 


82.9 




06/22/88 


986 


338 SC 


5.0 


5.0 


82.4 


82.4 




06/22/88 


1900 


350 SC 


5.1 


5.0 


81.9 


81.9 




06/22/88 


911 


605 MCB 


5.0 


5.0 


82.2 


82.2 




06/22/88 


484 


610 MCB 


5.2 


5.0 


81.9 


82.0 




06/22/88 


1013 


618 MC 


4.9 


4.9 


82.8 


82.8 




06/22/88 


986 


627 MCB 


5.0 


5.1 


82.0 


82.2 




06/22/88 


1900 


636 SC 


5.0 


4.9 


82.0 


82.0 




06/22/88 


687 


649 MCB 


5.0 


4.9 


82.8 


82.8 




06/23/88 


911 


1500 MCB 


5.9 


5.0 


84.0 


83.7 




06/23/88 


687 


1635 MCB 


5.6 


5.3 


84.7 


84.4 




06/23/88 


484 


1657 MCB 


5.2 


4.8 


84.7 


83.7 




06/23/88 


1013 


1742 MC 


5.2 


4.8 


83.8 


83.7 




06/23/88 


1900 


1813 SC 


5.2 


5.1 


84.0 


83.8 


800 


06/23/88 


986 


1835 SC 


5.4 


4.8 


83.8 


83.8 




06/23/88 


687 


2101 MCB 


4.7 


4.6 


83.3 


83.5 




06/23/88 


484 


2113 MCB 


5.0 


4.8 


83.5 


83.5 




06/23/88 


911 


2118 MCB 


5.1 


4.7 


83.5 


83.5 




06/23/88 


1013 


2125 MC 


4.9 


4.7 


83.3 


83.5 




06/23/88 


1900 


2144 SC 


4.7 


4.5 


83.3 


83.3 




06/23/88 


986 


2151 SC 


5.3 


5.1 


83.1 


83.1 




06/23/88 


687 


2258 MCB 


4.9 


4.7 


82.9 


83.1 




06/23/88 


484 


2307 MCB 


4.7 


4.5 


83.1 


83.1 




06/23/88 


911 


2316 MCB 


4.9 


4.6 


83.1 


83.3 




06/23/88 


1013 


2323 MC 


4.8 


4.6 


83.1 


83.3 




06/23/88 


986 


2331 SC 


4.9 


4.7 


82.9 


82.9 




06/23/88 


1900 


2339 SC 


4.7 


4.5 


82.9 


82.9 




06/24/88 


213 


1030 TRIB 


6.7 


5.9 


82.9 


82.4 


550 


06/24/88 


711 


1050 TRIB 


6.5 


5.6 


82.4 


82.2 




06/29/88 


687 


1125 MC 


5.3 


5.0 


79.5 


79.7 




06/29/88 


1137 


1345 MCB 


5.8 


5.5 


79.0 


79.0 


11.0 



pH (ppm) (ppm) 



92 



Appendix E cont. Select environmental parameters measured in 1988. 





D 


issolved 


Oxygen 


Water 


Cond. 






Cone. 


(ppm) 


Temp. 


(°F) 


Secchi (umhos/cm) NH^ (NH^-N 


Date Fish # 


Time Habitat 


Surface 


Bottom 


Surface 


Bottom 


(in) Surface pH (ppm) (ppm) 


06/29/88 1872 


1455 MC 


5.3 


5.2 


78.8 


79.0 




07/05/88 711 


1130 TRIB 


6.9 


3.8 


82.4 


79.0 


10.6 580 8.2 


07/05/88 687 


1400 MCB 


8.4 


5.6 


80.6 


77.5 


11.8 790 6.1 


07/07/88 1013 


2104 MC 


4.6 


4.1 


82.9 


82.6 




07/07/88 788 


2130 SC 


4.1 


4.1 


82.6 


82.8 




07/07/88 1900 


2141 SC 


4.5 


4.3 


82.8 


82.9 




07/07/88 484 


2154 MCB 


4.0 


3.9 


82.6 


82.8 




07/07/88 13 


2204 MCB 


4.8 


4.1 


82.6 


82.8 




07/07/88 687 


2220 MC 


4.2 


4.0 


82.6 


82.8 




07/08/88 1013 


122 MC 


3.9 


3.7 


82.6 


82.6 




07/08/88 788 


145 SC 


3.7 


3.5 


82.2 


82.4 




07/08/88 1900 


200 SC 


3.7 


3.6 


82.4 


82.6 




07/08/88 484 


216 MCB 


3.9 


3.8 


82.2 


82.2 




07/08/88 13 


233 MCB 


3.9 


3.9 


81.9 


81.9 




07/08/88 687 


249 MC 


3.7 


3.6 


82.9 


83.1 




07/08/88 1013 


625 MC 


3.4 


3.3 


82.6 


82.8 




07/08/88 788 


643 SC 


3.3 


3.2 


81.9 


81.7 




07/08/88 1900 


654 SC 


3.2 


3.2 


82.4 


82.6 




07/08/88 13 


709 SC 


3.6 


3.4 


82.8 


82.8 




07/08/88 484 


718 MCB 


3.6 


3.4 


82.6 


82.4 




07/08/88 687 


729 MCB 


3.5 


3.4 


83.1 


83.1 




07/08/88 986 


730 BW 


4.5 


4.4 


74.7 


74.1 




07/10/88 484 


903 MCB 


3.9 




84.2 






07/12/88 1013 


1344 MC 


3.6 


3.2 


84.7 


84.7 




07/12/88 788 


1530 SC 


4.2 


3.7 


85.1 


84.9 




07/12/88 1900 


1550 SC 


3.5 


3.4 


84.2 


84.4 




07/12/88 986 


1600 SC 


3.4 


3.2 


84.2 


84.4 




07/12/88 484 


1642 MCB 


3.8 


4.0 


83.8 


83.8 




07/12/88 687 


2035 MCB 


3.4 


3.3 


84.4 


84.4 




07/12/88 1013 


2053 MC 


3.4 


3.3 


84.4 


84.4 




07/12/88 788 


2105 SC 


3.6 


3.6 


83.5 


83.7 




07/12/88 1900 


2114 SC 


3.4 


3.1 


84.0 


84.2 




07/12/88 986 


2123 SC 


3.3 


3.2 


84.4 


84.2 




07/12/88 484 


2130 MCB 


3.3 


3.4 


84.0 


84.0 




07/12/88 687 


2359 MCB 


3.4 


3.3 


84.6 


84.9 




07/13/88 1013 


5 MC 


3.6 


3.3 


84.6 


84.6 




07/13/88 788 


27 SC 


3.4 


2.9 


83.3 


83.5 




07/13/88 1900 


36 SC 


3.5 


3.1 


83.8 


83.8 




07/13/88 986 


44 SC 


3.5 


3.3 


84.0 


84.2 




07/13/88 484 


56 MCB 


3.5 


3.4 


83.8 


84.2 




07/13/88 986 


307 SC 


3.5 


3.4 


84.4 


84.6 




07/13/88 484 


324 MCB 


3.8 


3.6 


83.8 


84.0 




07/13/88 687 


610 MC 


3.5 


3.3 


84.4 


84.6 




07/13/88 1013 


622 MC 


3.5 


3.2 


84.4 


84.6 




07/13/88 788 


633 SC 


3.4 


3.0 


83.8 


83.7 




07/13/88 1900 


642 SC 


3.3 


3.2 


84.2 


84.0 




07/13/88 484 


654 MCB 


3.5 


3.3 


83.5 


83.7 




07/13/88 986 


706 MCB 


3.4 


3.2 


84.4 


83.8 




07/14/88 1137 


1035 MC 


4.3 


3.8 


84.4 


84.4 




07/14/88 711 


1525 TRIB 










12.2 800 


07/19/88 1137 


915 MCB 


3.9 




86.5 






07/21/88 


1510 MC 


5.4 




84.2 




790 8.4 



93 



Appendix E cont. Select environmental parameters measured in 1^ 







D 


issolved 


Oxygen 


Water 




Cond. 












Cone. 


(ppm) 


Temp. 


(°F) 


Seech i 


(umhos/cm 


i) 


NH^ (NH,-N) 


Date F 


ish # 


Time Habitat 


Surface 


Bottom 


Surface 


Bottom 


(in) 


Surface 


pH 


(ppm) (ppm) 


07/22/88 




1415 MC 


5.9 




82.8 








8.4 




07/25/88 


1942 


927 SC 








80.6 










07/28/88 


711 


1515 TRIB 


9.5 


4.7 


89.2 


82.4 










07/28/88 




1600 MC 


6.9 


5.7 


85.5 


84.4 


12.2 








08/01/88 


1137 


1015 MC 


4.4 


3.1 


86.9 


85.8 






8.4 




08/01/88 


687 


1200 MCB 


5.1 


3.8 


87.8 


86.5 










08/01/88 


986 


1220 SC 


5.3 


4.7 


88.3 


86.9 










08/03/88 


761 


1050 MCB 


3.8 




87.4 




13.4 


740 


8.4 




08/03/88 


587 


1515 MCB 


5.7 




89.4 




11.8 




8.6 




08/0A/88 


687 


2030 MC 


4.3 


4.1 


88.3 


88.5 










08/04/88 


986 


2057 SC 


4.4 


4.3 


88.3 


88.3 










08/05/88 


687 


4 MCB 


4.2 


4.0 


88.0 


88.2 










08/05/88 


986 


25 SC 


4.1 


4.0 


87.8 


88.0 










08/05/88 


1942 


310 SC 


3.5 


3.3 


87.1 


87.1 










08/05/88 


986 


342 SC 


3.8 


3.8 


87.6 


87.8 










08/08/88 


687 


1225 MCB 


4.0 




86.4 




13.0 


780 


8.7 




08/09/88 




1245 MC 


2.9 






86.5 


15.0 


650 


8.6 




08/15/88 


137 


1357 SC 


4.9 


3.1 


90.0 


86.4 


12.6 








08/16/88 


1942 


2125 SC 


3.6 


3.3 


89.4 


88.5 










08/16/88 


1942 


2330 SC 


3.3 


2.9 


88.7 


88.3 










08/18/88 


1137 


745 MCB 


3.6 


3.3 


88.2 


88.3 










08/18/88 


687 


905 MCB 


3.9 


3.6 


88.3 


88.3 










08/18/88 


587 


1100 MCB 


3.8 


3.5 


88.9 


88.3 










08/18/88 


411 


1115 MCB 


4.2 


3.9 


88.7 


88.2 










08/18/88 


1942 


1225 SC 


5.1 


3.0 


89.2 


87.8 










08/19/88 


587 


950 MCB 


3.0 




87.8 




11.0 




8.2 




08/22/88 


761 


1449 MCB 


3.7 


3.3 


84.0 


83.8 










08/22/88 


411 


1526 MCB 


4.0 


4.0 


83.8 


83.7 










08/23/88 


761 


44 MC 


3.4 


3.3 


82.6 


82.8 










08/23/88 


411 


111 MCB 


3.3 


3.1 


82.0 


82.2 










08/23/88 


761 


804 MCB 


3.2 


2.9 


81.5 


81.7 










08/23/88 


411 


823 MCB 


3.5 


3.3 


81.0 


81.0 










08/23/88 


761 


2325 MCB 


4.1 


3.9 


81.7 


82.0 










08/23/88 


411 


2345 MCB 


4.0 


4.0 


81.7 


81.9 










08/24/88 


761 


217 MC 


4.0 


3.8 


81.5 


81.7 










08/24/88 


411 


237 MCB 


3.7 


3.6 


81.0 


81.3 










08/29/88 




935 SC 


4.7 


3.0 


72.9 


73.0 


9.4 


600 


8.9 


0.70(0.23) 


08/29/88 




1210 MC 


5.6 


5.3 


74.7 


74.3 


10.6 


625 


8.3 


0.95(0.05) 


09/01/88 




1039 MC 


4.7 




73.4 








8.4 


0.82(0.11) 


09/06/88 




1219 TRIB 


4.7 




69.1 




7.9 


550 


8.7 


0.95(0.11) 


09/06/88 




1319 MC 


6.4 




72.3 




12.2 


550 


8.5 


1.10(0.14) 


09/12/88 




1322 MC 


6.7 




72.1 




10.2 


625 


8.7 




09/19/88 




920 MCB 


5.3 




74.7 




11.8 


590 


8.5 


1.30(0.19) 


09/20/88 




820 MCB 


6.5 




71.4 




11.8 


590 


8.5 


0.65(0.08) 


09/28/88 




950 SC 


8.5 


6.9 


66.2 


69.8 




575 






09/28/88 


687 


1030 MC 


8.6 




70.3 






590 






09/28/88 




1150 TRIB 


7.5 


5.8 


68.7 


66.7 




580 


8.5 




09/28/88 




1215 MC 














8.6 




10/13/88 


687 


1040 MCB 






59.0 












10/13/88 




1047 MC 






59.0 






490 


8.6 




10/17/88 


761 


909 MCB 


8.3 


7.4 


60.3 


60.1 










10/18/88 


888 


1252 MC 


8.9 


8.1 


60.6 


60.4 











94 



Appendix E cont. Select environmental parameters measured 









D 


issolved 


Oxygen 


Wat 


er 


Cond. 












Cone. 


(ppm) 


Temp. 


(°F) Secchi 


(umhos/cm) 


NH^ (NHj-N: 


Date F 


ish # 


Time 


Habitat 


Surface 


Bottom 


Surface 


Bottom (in) 


Surface pH 


(ppm) (ppm) 


10/18/88 




1307 


MC 


8.9 


8.0 


60.6 


60.4 


500 8.7 




10/18/88 


111B 


1350 


MC 


7.0 


6.9 


60.8 


60.6 






10/18/88 


837 


1415 


MC 


7.8 


7.4 


60.8 


60.6 






10/20/88 




1300 


MC 


8.1 


7.9 


58.8 


59.0 


490 8.9 


0.60(0.13) 


11/07/88 


837 


1030 


MC 


9.8 


8.9 


47.3 


47.3 






11/07/88 


111B 


1045 


MCB 


9.8 


9.0 


47.3 


47.3 






11/07/88 


638 


1120 


MC 


9.2 


8.8 


47.5 


47.3 






11/07/88 


88 


1303 


MCB 


9.2 


8.8 


48.2 


48.2 






11/07/88 


814 


1410 


BU 


6.0 


6.0 


45.3 


43.7 






11/14/88 


111B 


1140 


MCB 


10.8 


9.8 


45.3 


45.1 






11/14/88 


638 


1149 


MC 


10.5 


9.6 


45.1 


45.1 






11/14/88 


88 


1259 


MCB 


10.4 


9.8 


46.2 


46.0 






11/14/88 


888 


1343 


MCB 


10.1 


9.9 


46.0 


45.9 






11/14/88 


814 


1414 


BW 


8.8 


7.7 


47.1 


45.3 






11/28/88 


111B 


1120 


MC 


13.3 


10.8 


44.2 


44.2 


400 




11/28/88 


638 


1137 


MC 


9.3 


9.1 


44.2 


44.2 






11/28/88 


814 


1232 


BU 


10.3 


9.3 


37.6 


37.6 






01/19/89 




1302 


MCB 






37.4 


37.4 9.1 


470 8.7 




01/19/89 




1445 


BW 






41.0 








01/19/89 




1501 


SC 






37.4 








01/24/89 






MCB 






33.8 









Habitat designations: MC=Main Channel, MCB=Main Channel Border, SC=Side Channel 
Border, BW=Back Water, TRIB=Tributary stream 



95 



Appendix F. Summary of radio- tagged channel catfish movements. 

1987 



Frequency and Distance Moved (r 



Fish # 


Gross 


Net 


<0.1 


>.11 - 1.0 


>10.0 


Total 


Comments 


A0161 


0.0 


0.0 


1 












A1439 


0.1 


-0.1 


2 












C0011 


0.0 


0.0 


1 












C0011B 


16.7 


11.9 


22 


1 


2 


25 




C0036 


6.5 


-0.1 


40 


11 


1 


52 




C0061 


0.0 


0.0 


5 












C0086 


8.4 


-8.4 








1 






C0471 


3.2 


+0.2 


7 


1 


2 


10 




C1161 


0.0 


0.0 


4 












C1355 


0.0 


0.0 


2 












CU32 


0.0 


0.0 


2 












CU32B 


0.1 


-0.1 


8 












CI 439 


4.3 


-4.7 


13 


3 


2 


18 




C1447 


0.0 


0.0 


9 








9 




C1455 


1.0 


0.0 


3 


2 





5 




S1012 


4.9 












Spoon River 


S1038 


9.9 












Spoon River 


SI 088 


3.3 












Spoon River 


S1112 


2.3 












Spoon River 


T0110 


4.8 


+2.7 


26 


5 


2 


33 




T0186B 


0.0 


0.0 


2 








2 




T0210 


0.3 


-0.1 


12 


1 





13 




T1092 


27.6 


-27.4 


13 





1 


14 




T1139 


0.0 


0.0 


1 








1 






Mean 


Summary 












N = 24 


3.9 


* 


173 
(83%) 


24 
(11.5%) 


11 

(5.3%) 


208 





* Summary of Net Movements 

Direction # of Fish 

Upstream (+) 2 

No Movement (0) 10 
Downstream (-) 8 



Distance Moved (mi.) 

(Mean) 

1.5 



96 



Appendix G. Summary of radio- tagged channel catfish movements. 



Distance Moved (mi.) 
Fish # Gross Net 



Frequency and Distance Moved (r 



>10.0 Total 



111B 


4.3 


+ 0.1 


0013 


7.4 


-0.1 


0088 


0.4 


0.0 


0137 


14.1 


-14.1 


0162 


0.2 


+0.2 


0186 


0.3 


-0.3 


0213 


3.3 




0237 


0.0 


0.0 


0288 


0.0 


0.0 


0311 


0.0 


0.0 


0385 


0.0 


0.0 


0411 


10.4 


-9.0 


0484 


0.5 


-0.1 


0518 


12.6 


-12.0 


0587 


16.4 


-3.6 


0611 


0.0 


0.0 


0638 


5.2 


-3.2 


0660 


0.0 


0.0 


0687 


3.1 


-0.1 


0711 


1.4 


- 


0761 


0.4 


0.0 


0788 


0.8 


0.0 


0814 


0.8 


-0.2 


0837 


3.0 


+2.8 


0888 


5.7 


+5.5 


0911 


0.4 


0.0 


0986 


5.4 


0.0 


1013 


1.0 


0.0 


1137 


2.9 


+ 2.3 


1439 


0.2 


-0.2 


1872 


1.3 


+ 0.3 


1900 


2.0 


-1.0 


1942 


5.9 


-0.9 




Mean 


Summai 


N = 33 


3.3 


* 



644 
(91.5%) 



Moved up Spoon River 



Moved up Spoon River 



41 19 
(5.8%) (2.7%) 



Summary of Net Movements 



Di rection 
Upstream (+) 
No Movement (0) 
Downstream (-) 



# of Fish Mean Distance Moved (mi.) 
6 1.9 

12 
13 3.4 



97 



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